Treatment of Anxiety Disorders - Coggle Diagram
Treatment of Anxiety Disorders
Systematic Desensitisation (Wolpe)
It is based on the idea that almost all behaviour is a conditional response to stimuli in the environment (operational conditioning)
Spider (CS) = Fear (CR)
Relaxation technique (CS) = Calmness (CR)
Spider (CS) + Relaxation technique (UCS) = Calmness (UCR)
Spider (CS) = Calmness (CR)
It makes a once frightening stimuli become neutral and provoke no anxiety
The impossibility of feeling 2 strong and opposing emotions simultaneously
Put the fearful feeling directly in contact with feelings of deep relaxation
As both fear and calm are incompatible, the fearful response to the stimulus is unlearnt
Teach the patient relaxation techniques
Progressive muscle relaxation
Create an anxiety hierarchy
A list of anxiety provoking situations which increase
Patient work through the hierarchy in vivo (directly in real life) or in vitro (imagined)
Patient is helped to remain calm using relaxation techniques. They don't proceed to next stage if there is still anxiety
Applied Tension (Ost)
Involves applying tension to increase blood pressure
Eg: Increase blood pressure to prevent fainting for people with haemophobia
Establish which treatment was the most effective including applied tension
30 patients (19 males and 11 females)
Participants were aged 18-60 years
Participants were from the same hospital, with phobia of blood, wounds and injuries
Independent Measures Design
Applied tension group
Applied Relaxation group
Prior to treatment
Participants were assessed by self reports. Their heart rate and bp was measured while watching surgical operations
During treatment - sessions lasted 45-60 mins.
Applied tension group
They learnt to tense their arms, chests and legs until it felt warm.
They mastered this, then practiced it during exposure to blood.
Applied relaxation group
They learnt applied relaxation technique involving progressive muscle relaxation during exposure to blood.
They learnt both applied tension and applied relaxation techniques to use when exposed to blood.
After treatment and 6 months of post-treatment, participants were given same set of measures (like prior to treatment).
Across all the groups, 73% of participants showed improvement in behavioural psychological responses to blood.
Applied tension was as effective as the other groups, in half the time - more effective
Cognitive behavioural Therapy (Westling)
CBT would change the person's thoughts and beliefs about their anxiety
Compare the effectiveness of CBT with applied relaxation in patients with panic disorder
38 patients recruited via newspaper
They went through 12 weekly session
For CBT group
They should identify the misinterpretation of bodily sensations or faulty thinking - thinking that when their heart beats fast, that they are having a heart attack
They have to make alternative interpretations. Eg: most dogs don't bite
The therapist challenges the evidence for their beliefs
For AR group
Progressive muscle techniques taught to practice in panic and non-panic situations
No significant difference between both groups which means they are both successful in treating panic attack symptoms