EL - Metalanguage, Polysyllabic - Coggle Diagram
EL - Metalanguage
Phonetics / Phonology
Connected speech processes
Omitting sounds (deletion)
Shorting sounds as vowels in unstressed positions are reduced to a 'swcha' sound
Adding new sounds
The pattern of pitch changes (this can be used to communicate attitude or emotion)
High rising terminal (HRT)
The rising intonation at the end of a statement so that the statement sounds like a question
Phonological pattening in texts
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
The repetition of an initial consonant sound (in consecutive words or words near each other, can make a text more memorable)
The repetitions of identical vowel sounds - e.g 'we need cream to clean'
The repetition of consonant sounds - e.g 'beanz meanz heinz'
The pattern of stressed or unstressed syllables in speech. Is common in poetry and song
The repetition of word endings that have the same or similar vowel and consonant sounds. Rhyme is used to capture people attention
Is a word formed by the imitation of a sound - e.g 'rustle' or 'splash'
A command or instruction (imperatives are usually missing a subject, otherwise its a declarative)
A strong emotional outburst
Contains one main clause (a subject and a verb)
Has one independent clause and at least on subordinate clause (there are two different verbs/ verb groups)
Contains at least two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction or a semicolon
Have at least two independent clauses and at least one subordinate (3 verbs with two clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction and one joined by a subordinating conjunction)
Phrase is a group of one or more words that function together as one unit within a larger phrase clause or sentence. Phrases can't exist as a complete grammatical sentence as they lack either a subject or predicate (a verb and all its modifiers) or both
Contains a noun and other related words that help describe the word (these words are usually modifiers or determiners)
Consists of a main verb in a sentence plus any auxiliaries, complements and other modifiers. A verb phrase can also be the whole predicate of a sentence
Consists of the preposition and the object of the preposition as well as any other modifiers. Prepositional phrases act in place of adjectives or adverbs in a sentence. They always follow the structure of a preposition + noun phrase
A group of words functioning as an adjective in a sentence (typically these are adjectives and their modifiers)
Consists of an adverb or words acting as adverbs within a sentence. They usually follow the structure of either Adverb or Adverb + Adverb
Don't have both a subject and a verb
If you can substitute the group of words with a pronoun e.g it, then you can be confident that the group of words is a phrase.
E.g 'The hungry pig escaped from the farm'
escaped from the far
therefore 'the hungry pig' is a noun phrase
The person or thing doing the action within a sentence
The person or thing that has been acted upon
Sometimes it can be difficult to distinguish between an object and a complement in a clause. An active sentence with a complement can be recast as a passive sentence. This can't be done with a complement
Provide extra information about an element, such as a subject or object (often a complement is an adjective)
Provide extra info about an element, typically in relation to time, place or manner
Express a complete thought and can stand alone to form a sentence. Independent clauses are linked together by coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS)
For, and, nor, but, yet, so (FANBOYS)
Begin with a subordinating conjunction (anything except fanboys) such as because, if, when, although, since etc
A clause is contains a complete verb phrase and may or may include a subject and other phrases
Have both a subject and a verb
Active / passives voices
Follows the subject-verb-object order and is the most common default structure in English Language
The patient (object) is moved to the initial position in a sentence and the agent (subject) is either delayed or omitted (agentless passive). This places emphasis on the object of the verb.
Passive structures are less direct and can sound more impersonal and objective especially when the agent is removed
Has no agent (subject)
The person or thing (Subject) that is doing the verb
The thing effected by the verb
The action being completed
Syntactic patterning in texts
The application of parallelism where the elements in parallel are in direct contrast with each other, often they are antonyms
The collection of three or more related elements put together
The repetition of two or more phrases, clauses or sentences that are structurally similar and appear near each other. Parallel structures are often used in conjunction with lexical repetition where the first portion of the structure also contains repeated lexis
Patterns created through repeated syntactic structures
Make language more efficient by leaving out parts of a sentence that can be understood or inferred from the context
A clause that is missing either a subject or a verb
Lexicology / Morphology
Words that name people, places, things, qualities or actions
Provide additional information about nouns
Describe or add information about the verb
Used to modify/change some aspect of the main verb. Often they are used to modify a verb's tense
(To be, To do, To have)
Can, Could, Shall, Should, Will, Would, May, Might, Must
A work that introduces a noun. It always comes before a noun and before any other adjectives used to describe the noun e.g the, my, their, this
Words that show the relationship between nouns and other words in a sentence
Short words that can replace nouns in a sentece e.g her, we, I etc
Words that express a sudden or strong emotional feeling e.g oops, eww, ouch
Words used to link other words e.g and, because, unless, but etc
The smallest unit of language that expresses meaning or serves as a grammatical function
Can stand alone as words and can't be broken down any further
Doesn't change a word's meaning or word class however they provide additional information such as plurality, possession or tense
-er, -est, -s, -ed, -en, -ing, 's, -s
Changes the meaning of words, creates a new words and can change the word class of the word
Word formation processes
Brand new words
Words created by using two parts of existing words
Made up from the beginning of letters in a sequence of words e.g RACV
Similar to initialisms but you pronounce the sounds of the letters rather than the letters themselves
Shortened version of a word e.g gym from gymnasium
Creating a new word by putting two free morphemes together e.g facebook
Creating new words through the addition of affixes e.g writing (write + ing)
Converting words from one word class to another without adding affixes to the word. E.g Email began as a noun and is now used as a verb
E.g Can't, shouldn't, won't, they're etc
Words so closely associated with one another that when we hear one we almost automatically provide the other. E.g Safe and sound
The development of common everyday words that began life as proper nouns. E.g Band-aid
Using words from other languages
Word loss - Words that are no longer used in everyday life they may have been preserved in special contexts but are no longer common. E.g 'thy', 'thou' etc
Word loss - words that are considered taboo or offensive and are therefore lost from the language
The conversion of verbs into nouns
Is connected to word formation processes and involves the repeated presence of words made by one or more of these word formation processes
In formal texts words will often have latin or greek suffixation and nominalisation
Involves the repeated presence of a word and its various forms
Simple lexical patterning
Involves the repetition of a word in its identical form or with very simple changes (sing, sings etc)
Complex lexical patterning
Involves words and any forms of them created through affixation (category, categorise, categorical)
Hierarchy and formality
Formal - Latin and Greek > Old French, Anglosaxon/Old English > Informal
Top heavy (most formal), Bottom heavy (least formal)
The meaning of a lexeme becomes limited, the word means less than it once did because that meaning becomes more specialised
A lexeme widens its meaning. A word meaning more than it once did because it retains its old meaning while taking on a new one
A lexeme takes on a new meaning and loses its old meaning
A lexeme takes a more positive meaning than it once had
A lexeme takes on a more negative meaning than it once had
When the author states one thing but actually intends the audience to understand a contradictory meaning. It is often used for humour or satire. It can also be used to build solidarity between interlocutors by developing implicit understanding
Compares two things but relies on the audience using their imagination or knowledge of cultural context to find an interpretation beyond the literal meaning as a metaphor is implicit
A phrase that combines two apparently contradictory words for special effect E.g 'deafening silence', 'walking dead' etc
Explicitly connects one thing to another in order to make a comparison. Prepositions such as 'like' or 'as' are used to draw attention to the connection that is being made
A specific type of metaphor that gives non humans human qualities or abilities such as emotions, desires, expressions or language
A type of metaphor that gives life or movement to inanimate objects, ideas or places. Unlike personification, the animate qualities that are transferred are not specifically human and can be associated with other living things. E.g "The wind howled"
Plays on the different meanings of words; it exploits lexical ambiguity for comedic effect
Occurs when it is not possible to determine the intended meaning of a particular lexeme. E.g "the punch made him weak" where the punch could mean a blow with a fist or a beverage containing juice
Semantic patterning is often used to draw our attention to certain key features of the discourse and can heavily impact the register
Openings and closings
Greetings or phatic talk before addressing a topic
Questions and answers, compliment and acknowledgment, thank you and response etc
Little 'tags' we put at the end of a statement to turn it into a question. These are often used to check that the other person is understanding/agreeing e.g "you know", "don't you think", "right?"
Little 'fillers' that we insert into our speech e.g "like", "I guess", "sort of", "just", "a bit", "i think"
Occur when we are speaking spontaneously and/or are trying to formulate ideas e.g um, ah, er etc
Strategies used for controlling the topic of conversation
Involves taking the floor, holding the floor and passing the floor
Taking the floor
Holding the floor
Minimal responses/back channelling
E.g "mmm", "yeah", "oh"
Pass the floor?
(The implied or underlying logical connections within a text)
Prior knowledge that a reader brings to a text which makes the text easier to understand and is not explicitly mentioned within the text
Ensures that a text is structured both visually and textually in a way that makes sense for that text type.
The way something is arranged or set out.
Consistency and conventions
A coherent text is one that adheres to the conventions of the text type. Consistency and conventions go hand in hand with formatting. Features of consistency can be structural or lexical.
Grammatical, lexical and organising features which aid the meaning of a text by ‘holding it together’
Allow clarification of information, provide more details about the topic, or indicate where else it may be found e.g brackets are used to include more information
(Specific linguistic strategies that signal relationships between parts of a text)
Synonymy is the use of words which are closely related in meaning in a patterned way and is used to vary the language within a text or utterance to avoid unnecessary repetition of ideas.
An antonym (morphology/lexicology) is a word with a meaning, or denotation, opposite to that of another word. ANTONYMY is the use of words that are opposite in meaning in a patterned way.
Hyponyms are words that are conceptual subdivisions of a general category. This means they’re conceptually included in the definition of the general category and belong on the same semantic field.
E.g Salt and pepper; hard-earned money; rotten eggs; rancid butter; tropical paradise
Terms which refer to the personal, temporal or locational characteristics of a situation, and whose meanings only make sense in that context E.g ‘here’, ‘there’, ‘this’, ‘that’
Deictic words or deixis are terms used to denote words or expressions that rely on the context to convey meaning. Such words make no sense if the context is not known or explained.
Examples of deictic words include this, that, these, those, now & then.
What do I do with all
I can’t believe you bought
To my right
, Flinders Street Station and Federation Square.
The use of words such as pronouns to refer to something already mentioned in a sentence. E.g The cake (referent) was delicious and everybody ate it (anaphor)
Cataphoric reference is similar to anaphoric reference except that cataphor uses substitution before the referent is mentioned. E.g Although I phone
every week, my
Using a word, phrase, or clause more than once, to dwell on, make clearer or place emphasis on a particular point.
The omission of items (words or phrases) in a sentence because they appear elsewhere or can be inferred from the context
Replacing one element of a sentence with something else. In a cohesive text, substitution could only take place if the element has already appeared in the text in full, as otherwise it will cause ambiguity
Join phrases, clauses or words E.g Coordinating or subordinating conjunctions
Words, phrases or clauses that provide extra information about a clause element, particularly with regard to time, place or manner. Their descriptions are generally not ESSENTIAL in a sentence – they clarify rather than provide essential information. E.g yesterday, very loudly, so quickly etc
Strategies for presenting information. Can involve manipulating the order in which information is presented, for effect, or so that information gains prominence
Ways information can be ordered
A phrase that contains the third-person pronoun ‘it’ is moved to the front of the sentence and followed by the appropriate grammatical tense of the verb ‘to be’. The rest of the clause is connected with a relative pronoun such as ‘which’, ‘that’ or ‘who’.
Prominence is created through the use of a relative pronoun such as ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘when’ etc. at the beginning of the sentence or clause. A pseudo-cleft results in the prominent aspect of the sentence occurring at the end of a sentence or utterance rather than near the beginning
Clefting involves the movement of a phrase to another position within the sentence and means to split or divide a clause to draw attention to what a writer or speaker wants their audience to focus on.
Moving a clausal element that usually comes at the end of a sentence to the front instead of the subject. This serves to bring particular information to the foreground
Involves moving a phrase out of its usual position to the front of a sentence to give it prominence.
Created by adding a pronoun at the end of the sentence that refers to an earlier subject.
E.g This McDonald’s, it was eaten by me.
Swapping the subject verb object ordering to become verb subject (these always feature a subject unlike agentless which doesn’t have a subject) This serves to bring the information about what was done into the foreground, placing more emphasis on the action rather than the agent.
Default SVO structure which allows for prominence to be placed on a particular phrasal element in a sentence by moving it to the end.
Most sentences in English follow the rule of end focus anyway as the traditional subject-verb-object construction is the most common way of creating end focus. This is the most efficient and clear way of providing new information.
Topic and comment
A form of end focus where a sentence or paragraph starts with an overall topic, then a comment or new information is provided about this topic. Topic and comment typically occur over multiple sentences.
Created by adding a pronoun to the start of a sentence that refers to a later subject. (can draw the attention to who did something)
The use of ‘there is…’, ‘there are…’, ‘there was…’ to draw the audiences attention to the subject of the sentence by prolonging its delivery. Sometimes, this also build suspense. (Normally we start with a subject but starting with there can build suspense)
VCAA listed social purposes
Encouraging intimacy, solidarity and equality
Maintaining and challenging positive and negative face needs
Supporting in-group membership
Promoting linguistic innovation
Reinforcing social distance and authority
Maintaining and challenging positive and negative face needs
Promoting social harmony, negotiating social taboos and building rapport
Clarifying, manipulating or obfuscating
Function, Field, Mode, Setting, Audience, Relationship between participants
Politically Correct language
A style of language that is designed to reduce or avoid potential offence or exclusion and to encourage an attitude of tolerance and acceptance
Refers to the values, attitudes and beliefs of the participants and the wider community in a discourse. The cultural context influences the language choices as well as the way it is received and interpreted by the receivers
When talking about cultural context consider the Australian references/lexems, connotations, inferences, face needs, politness euphimisms and taboo language
Doesn't belong to Australian Standard English and changes over time (is transient) and is usually exclusive
Are considered to be Australian English and are more permanent and inclusive than slang (e.g servo, ambo, arvo etc)
Commonly used phrases with non-literal meanings (e.g its a piece of cake, let the cat out of the bag, out of the blue etc)
Language that is deliberately offensive, controversial or insensitive and shouldn't be used in public contexts
Syntactic patterining, Phonological patterning, Morphological patterning, Semantic patterning
Positive face needs
The need to be liked, respected and included
Negative face needs
The need to be autonomous and act without imposition from others
A word or phase that masks an unpleasant meaning often by using a mild, vague or indirect alternative
Language used in the public domain (the fields of politics, the media, the law and bureaucracy.) It reflects the values and attitudes of organisations as well as individuals within them
Vocabulary and grammar (variation within a language)
A dialect that is associated with a particular social group
A dialect that is specific to a particular ethnic group
A variety of language associated with a particular person
Deliberately euphemistic, ambiguous or obscure language. A blended term that combines ‘doublethink’ and ‘newspeak’.
‘Downsizing the workforce’ to mean ‘a large number of forced redundancies’
Language or vocabulary specific to a profession, trade, field of study or group. Closely related to the term “register”. Can be formal or informal. It has two main functions: to serve as technical or specialist language (its orthodox function); or to promote in- group solidarity (generally arises because the language is unclear to outsiders). Sometimes the term is used pejoratively to mean
Persuasive language in the public domain. Rhetorical language often relies on inference, patterning or other features to fulfil its function and social purpose. It also generally appeals to the audience’s senses of ethics and empathy, as well as their reasoning. The ‘rhetorical force’ of a text is supported by the use of rhetorical devices
Polysyllabic lexemes are common in top-heavy semantic fields and convey prestige, expertise and power