SCREENING TESTS IN PREGNANCY - Coggle Diagram
SCREENING TESTS IN PREGNANCY
INFECTIOUS DISEASES (hepatitis B, HIV, syphilis)
Offered at your booking appointment with a midwife
Needs to be done as early as possible in pregnancy, ideally by 10 weeks, so treatment can be started to help reduce the risk of passing the infection on to your baby
Already know you have HIV or hepatitis B, you'll need early specialist appointments to plan your care in pregnancy
If your partner has HIV, hepatitis B or syphilis, tell your midwife as soon as possible.
Affects the liver and can cause immediate and long-term illness
Passed on in blood and other body fluids through sexual contact or infected needles
Pregnant women with hepatitis B need specialist care, which you'll be offered if the test is positive or if you already know you have hepatitis B.
If your baby completes a course of vaccinations in their first year, this greatly reduces the risk of developing hepatitis B.
Weakens the immune system, making it difficult to fight off infection.
If left untreated, it can lead to AIDS
HIV is passed on in blood and other body fluids through sexual contact or infected needles
HIV can be passed from a woman to her baby during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding if it's not treated.
Usually passed on through close contact with a syphilis sore during sex
Can be passed from a pregnant woman to her unborn baby during pregnancy
If untreated, syphilis can cause serious health problems for the mother and her baby
Treated with antibiotics
The earlier it's treated, the lower the risk of passing it onto the baby.
INHERITED CONDITIONS (sickle cell, thalassaemia, haemoglobin disorders)
Sickle cell disease and thalassaemia
Inherited blood disorders
If you're a carrier of the gene, you can pass these health conditions on to your baby
Those at high risk of being a sickle cell carrier are offered a test for sickle cell
If the mother is found to be a carrier, screening is also offered to the father
The test should be offered before you're 10 weeks pregnant - important the test is done early
Affect haemoglobin - part of the blood that carries oxygen around the body
People who have these conditions need specialist care throughout their lives
Episodes of very severe pain
Serious life-threatening infections
Usually anaemic (their bodies have difficulty carrying oxygen)
Babies with sickle cell disease can receive early treatment - vaccinations and antibiotics
Along with parental support, this will prevent serious illness and allow them to live a healthier life
Very anaemic and need a blood transfusion every 2-5 weeks
Have injections and medicines throughout their lives
Best to have the test before you're 10 weeks pregnant
Option to have more tests to find out whether your baby will be affected if the first test shows you're a carrier of a blood disorder.
All pregnant women are offered a test for thalassameia, but not always for sickle cell.
In areas where haemoglobin diseases are more common, all women will automatically be offered a blood test for sickle cell.
DOWN'S, EDWARDS' AND PATAU'S SYNDROME
Down's syndrome (T21)
Causes some level of learning disability
Varies from mild to severe
May be more likely to have other health conditions
Problems with the digestive system
Hearing and vision
Edwards' syndrome (T18) and Patau's syndrome (T13)
Most babies will die before or shortly after birth
Some may survive to adulthood, but this is rare
All babies born with these syndromes will have a wide range of problems, which are usually very serious.
May include major complication affecting their brain
Available between 10-14 weeks of pregnancy
Ultrasound scan with a blood test
During the scan - fluid at back of baby's neck measured to determine the 'nuchal translucency'
Mother's age and information from this + blood test is used to work out the chance of the baby having these syndromes.
Sometimes called mid-pregnancy or anomaly scan
Carried out between 18-21 weeks pregnant
Offered to everybody but it is optional
Checks the physical development of your baby - can't pick up every condition
Looks for 11 rare conditions
Anencephaly - a life-limiting condition where the baby's brain and spinal cord don't develop properly.
Spina bifida - a neural tube defect where part of the baby's neural tube doesn't develop or close properly.
Cleft lip - a slight or complete slip in the lip, in one or both sides.
Diaphrgmatic hernia - a condition where the baby's diaphragm does not form as it should.
Gastroschisis - an abdominal wall defect when a baby's abdominal wall does not develop fully while in the womb.
Exomphalos - an abdominal wall defect when a baby's abdominal wall does not develop fully while in the womb.
Serious cardiac abnormalities - conditions that affect the structure, function and rhythm of a baby's heart.
Bilateral renal genesis - a rare condition where both kidneys don't develop.
Lethal skeletal dysplasia - abnormalities in the bones of the arms, legs, chest or sometimes the skull.
Edward's and Patau's syndrome - exra copy of a chromosome in all or some cells.