Benefits or costs of hard engineering - Coggle Diagram
Benefits or costs of hard engineering
Social: A sea wall gives the community a sense of security
Economic: If well maintained, sea walls can last for many years.
Environmental: Sea walls do not impede the movement of sediment downdrift, so the don't harm any other areas.
Social: They restrict peoples access to the beach
Economic: About £5,000 per linear metre, they are expensive to build.
Environmental: The wall of concrete is ugly to look at. They can also destroy habitats.
Economic: 5,000 each
Social: Rock groynes have concrete crests to walk along or fish from
Economic: Trap sediment
Environmental: Groynes may be considered unsightly
Social: Barriers which impede walking along a beach
Highly resistant and rocks are imported from abroad
Rock armour is ugly and can be littered with driftwood
Makes the beach difficult to reach
Economic: relatively cheap
quick and easy to build and maintain
they are dangerous when in a damaged state
gabions is restricted to sand beaches
damaged gabions are unsightly and sea birds may damage their feet on them
Blend in better than the other hard engineering methods
$110 a metre, they are relatively cheap and easy to construct