EU institutions - Coggle Diagram
European Commission = 27 Commissioners
- Proposes budget + legislation = monopoly on legi initiative
- Guardian of EU Treaties = Oversees the application of Union law
- Manages EU policies and allocates funds = implementing powers
- Represents EU on int stage
- Important executive powers in competition and external trade policies
President Ursula Von der Leyen - German
(Dec 2019-Oct 2024) 5y = appointed by national leaders (EC) with approval of EP
- decides on the organisation of the Com + allocates portfolios to individual Commissioners + sets the Commission's policy agenda
- represents the Com in European Council meetings, G7 and G20 summits, summits with non-EU countries and major debates in EP and C;
- Ambitions for Europe: a European Green Deal; a Europe fit for the digital age; an economy that works for people; a stronger Europe in the world; promoting our European way of life; a new push for European democracy
Comitology system has been replaced by new legal instruments, namely implementing and delegated acts.
Secretariat-General = 33 directorates-general = develop, manage and implement EU policy, law and funding.
20 special departments (services and agencies) = deal with ad hoc or horizontal issues.
6 executive agencies
Limited initiative: the power of recommendation or opinion
EMU, under the CFSP
Council of EU/Ministers = National ministers
Brussels + Luxembourg
- Adoption of the budget
- External relations - concludes international agreements with non-EU countries or int org.(which are negotiated by the Comm and in most cases require EP’s consent)
- Coordinates policies
- Develops CFSP
-> simple majority, QMV, unanimity
Portugal's presidency of the Council of the EU
(1 January - 30 June 2021)
A rotating presidency every 6 months => work together closely in groups of three, called '"trios" (Lisbon), helping to ensure the continuity of work
- sets long-term goals and prepares a common agenda determining the topics and major issues that will be addressed by the Council over an 18 month period - each of the three countries prepares its own more detailed 6-month programme.
Now: Germany, Portugal and Slovenia
Next: Slovenia, France, Czechia
- strengthen Europe’s resilience
- promote confidence in the European social model
- promote a sustainable recovery
- speed up a fair and inclusive digital transition
- reaffirm the EU’s role in the world, ensuring that this is based on openness and multilateralism
Eurogroup President and Minister for Finance - Paschal Donohoe
(13 July 2020 +2.5 y ) = elected by a simple majority of the Eurogroup members
- represents the Eurogroup in international fora (e.g. G7, G20, IMF, WTO)
- presents the outcomes of Eurogroup discussions to the public and to the ministers of non-euro area EU countries
(no hierarchy, but GAC has a special coordination role and is responsible for institutional, administrative and horizontal matters + FAC has a special remit)
- all except FAC are chaired by the minister of the MS holding the 6-month Council presidency
Economic and Financial Affairs Council configuration (Ecofin) = economic policy, taxation issues and the regulation of financial services (financial markets and capital movements + economic relations with countries outside the EU) + prepares the EU's annual budget and takes care of the legal and practical aspects of the single currency, the euro.
Education, Youth, Culture and Sport (EYCS) = responsibility of Mss - EU provides framework for cooperation b them
Competitiveness (COMPET) = enhance competitiveness and increase growth - internal market, industry, research and innovation and space.
Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs (EPSCO) = increase employment levels and improve living and working conditions, ensuring a high level of human health and consumer protection in the EU
Agriculture and Fisheries (AGRIFISH) = production of food, rural development and the management of fisheries.
Environment Council (ENVI) = envi protection, prudent use of resources and the protection of human health + int envi issues, especially in the area of climate change
Foreign Affairs (FAC) = EU's external action - foreign policy, defence and security, trade, neighbourhood policy, development cooperation and humanitarian aid.
General Affairs Council (GAC) = preparations for European Council meetings and respons for cross-cut areas (EU enlargement and accession negotiations, the adoption of the MFF, cohesion policy, matters relating to the EU's institutional set-up) + ensuring consistency in the work of all Council configurations
Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) = develops cooperation and common policies on various cross-border issues with the aim of building an EU-wide area of freedom, security (HA: migration, border management and police cooperation) and justice (judicial cooperation in both civil and criminal law and fundamental rights) + civil protection. Denmark and Ireland do not fully participate. Schengen acquis - mixed committee format (+ 4 non-EU: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland)
Transport, Telecommunications and Energy (TTE) = to establish modern, competitive and efficient markets and infrastructure, and to create trans-European transport, communications and energy networks.
High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy + Vice-President of E Commission + Chair of Foreign Affairs Council - Josep Borrell Fontelles - Spanish
(1 Dec 2019 + 5y renewable) = appointed by E Council, QMV
- chief diplomat, shaping and carrying out the EU's external action – CFSP and CSDP
- assisted by the European External Action Service (EEAS)
- Representing the EU at international meetings, such as the United Nations
- Heading the European Defence Agency and the EU Institute for Security Studies
- Role created by the Treaty of Amsterdam (1999f) -> Lisbon (2009f) added VP of COM
COREPER- permanent representatives of MSs
Coreper I = comprising the deputy permanent representatives; prepares work in the more technical areas - agriculture, employment, education and the environment
Coreper II = addresses matters falling more within the field of ‘high politics’ - foreign, economic and monetary affairs and justice and home affairs.
+assisted in its preparatory work by some 10 committees and around a 100 specialised working parties.
European Parliament = representing the citizens
704 + 1 MEPs (degressive proportionality - G,F,I) Strasbourg + Brussels, secretariat in Luxembourg
- Laws - OLP
- Budget - adopts MFF and annual
- Control - monitors the proper use of EU funds and supervises other EU institutions
+elects the President of the Com and has the right to approve and dismiss the Com.
President David-Maria Sassoli - Italian (Demo P)
(3 July 2019 - Dec 2021) + 2.5y renewable once = elected by MEPs -> 14 VP
Political bodies: Bureau (Pr + 14 VP), the Conference of Presidents (Pr + political group chairs), the five Quaestors (responsible for M’ administrative and financial business), the Conference of Committee Chairs and the Conference of Delegation Chairs
20 Committees + 2 subcommittees + 39 delegations (MEPs discuss a specific topic in small groups) => Plenary Meetings 1xm; political affiliation in transnational groups (min 25)
- Origins: Common Assembly of the ECSC -> EEC+Euratom = 1958 as the ‘European Parliamentary Assembly’-> EP name 30 March 1962 - MEPs appointed by MSs
- 1957 - Motion of censure (‘vote of no confidence’) against the Commission=two-thirds majority of the votes
- 1970 - extension of budgetary powers + 1975 - strengthening
- SEA - cooperation procedure (L abolished) + accession and association treaties subject to its assent
1979 - directly elected
- Maastricht - codecision procedure in certain areas + extending the coop pr + final approval over the membership of the Commission (control over executive)
- Amsterdam - extended the codecision pr to most areas of leg and reformed it = EP a co-legislator on an equal footing with the Council + appointment of the Pr of the Com was made subject to EP’s approval (more power over ex c); assent limited to the Structural and Cohesion Funds.
- Nice - further extended the scope of the codecision pr
- Lisbon - renamed OLP + consent+ eliminated the distinction between compulsory and non-compulsory expenditure + direct right of initiative in some areas + consent for MFF + monitoring impl of b
- European People’s Party (Christian Democrats) (EPP) = 186 centre-right
- Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats = 145 centre-left
- Renew Europe = 98
- Identity and Democracy = 75
- Greens/European Free Alliance = 73
- European Conservatives and Reformists = 62
- Confederal Group of of the European United Left - Nordic Green Left = 39
+26 non-attached members = 704
European Council = summit conference of 27 Heads of State or Gov - PMs or Pr
- Defines the EU’s direction and priorities + provides the Union with the necessary impetus for its development
- European Semester = issues policy orientations on macroeconomic, fiscal and structural reform and growth-enhancing policies + negotiation of the MFF (expenditure limits, spending programmes and resources)
President Charles Michel - Belgian
(December 2019 - May 2022) + 2.5 y renewable once = appointed by the European Council by a QM
- chairing EC meetings and driving forward its work + helping to facilitate cohesion and consensus
- presenting a report to EP after each EC meeting;
- ensures the external representation of the EU at the level of heads of state or government:
-- on issues related to the CFSP, alongside the HR of FASP, who helps put into effect the CFSP and ensure its unity, consistency and effectiveness;
-- at international summits, usually alongside the Pr of the ECom
- 1961 - first Paris conference; since 1974 - held on regular basis under EC name = adopt a general approach to the problems of E integration and ensure that EU activities were properly coordinated
- SEA - included the EC in the body of the Community Treaties for the first time
- Maastricht - formalised its role in the EU’s institutional process
- Lisbon - established the EC as full institution + Pr position became a permanent and full-time
Takes decisions with complete independence and in most cases
does not require a Commission initiative or the involvement of Parliament.
Decides on issues by consensus, but a number of important appointments are made by qualified majority - president, the choice of candidate for the post of Pr of the E Com, and the appointment of the HR of the Union for FASP and the Pr of the ECB, formation of the Council and the calendar of the rotating presidencies.
Unanimously = whether to recommend to the MSs to move towards a progressive framing of a common EU defence policy.
- Meets 4xy => since 2008, it has met more often
- members meet in the format of ‘intergovernmental conferences’ (IGCs) = convened to discuss and agree on EU treaty changes (prior to Lisbon - the only way) = ‘ordinary revision procedure’ = unanimously
- Commission's president is a non-voting member of the European Council
- HR for Union FASP attends the debates.
European Central Bank = independent
EMU + responsible for monetary policy in the euro area since 1 January 1999.
- maintain price stability
- exclusive right to authorise the issue of euro banknotes
Denmark has been granted an opt-out
- supervision of all credit institutions in the MSs participating in SSM
President Christine Lagarde
(November 2019 + 8y not renew)
2014 = ECB has been responsible for specific tasks relating to the prudential supervision of credit institutions within the framework of the Single Supervisory Mechanism + a banking supervisor, the ECB also has an advisory role in assessing the resolution plans of credit institutions.
European System of Central Banks = ECB + all 27 nat central banks
- defining and implementing the Union’s monetary policy;
- conducting foreign exchange operations;
- holding and managing the official foreign reserves of the Member States;
- promoting the smooth operation of payment systems.
ECB’s decision-making bodies
- the Governing Council = ECB Executive Board + 19 Governors of the NCBs of euro area -formulates monetary policy and establishes the necessary guidelines for its implementation.
- the Executive Board= President + Vice-President + 4 other members -8y not-ren - responsible for the current and day-to-day business of the ECB
- the General Council = President + Vice-President of the ECB and the 27 governors of the NCBs of all the EU MSs.
European Court of Justice = 27 j +8 advocates-general
= responsible for the jurisdiction of the EU
Ensure the correct interpretation and application of primary and secondary Union law + review the legality of acts of EU institutions and decide whether MS have fulfilled their obligations = a driving force of the E integration process.
President Koen Lenaerts - Belgian
(9 October 2018 - 6 October 2021) re-elected; 3y renewable
General Court = has jurisdiction, at first instance, in all other actions of this type, particularly in actions brought by individuals and those brought by a Member State against the Commission.
- Responsibility for appeals
Court of Justice proper = exclusive jurisdiction over actions between the institutions and those brought by a Member State against the European Parliament and/or against the Council.
1963 - Van Gend & Loos case= established the principle that Community law is directly applicable in the courts of the MSs.
1964 - Costa/Enel case = fundamental in defining E Community law as an independent system taking precedence over national legal provisions
1974 Nold case= Court stated that fundamental human rights are an integral part of the general principles of law that it upholds
Free movement of goods: 1979 - Cassis de Dijon case = the Court ruled that any product legally manufactured and marketed in a MS must in principle be allowed on the market of any other MS
-> 6y. Partial replacement every 3 years, half of the judges and of the advocates-general replaced alternately.
-> immune from legal proceedings
Court of Auditors = 27 - 6y renewable
- in charge of the audit of EU finances
- EU’s external auditor - financial, compliance, performance
- contributes to improving EU financial management and acts as the independent guardian of the financial interests of the citizens of the Union.