Understanding Text Structures - Coggle Diagram
Understanding Text Structures
Text Structure as Architectural Shape
is to look at the physical
shape of a text.
How many paragraphs (stanzas, chapters, parts) does it have?
Are all the parts the same
Are some parts
much smaller than others?
Help students think about the implications of the physical structure.
Writers structure texts to accommodate the kinds of content they wish to present as well a to emphasize certain points.
They choose organizational structures that will help readers follow the logical unfolding of
Text Structures as Idea Chunking
clustering or chunking of ideas on a similar
often use headings to help readers recognize different content chunks.
to think about “chunks” of related content.
Thinking in terms of content chunks is particularly useful in on-demand writing situations when writers
have limited time
Text Structures as Organizational Patterns
is the organizational structure of narration.
be alert to the possibilities of flash back and flash forward.
is the structural strategy of description.
It may help students to think of the
uses the structures of analysis: process, enumeration, classification, part-
to-whole, problem and solution, comparison and contrast, cause and effect, and definition.
each is most effectively used in response to a
particular content and/or purpose.
Process structures are used to explain how to do something. Key terms such as first, then,
next, and finally can help readers recognize process structures.
Enumeration is listing. Typically the items in the list are all at the same level of
importance. Bullet points or numbers often signal the list structure.
Classification is a structure that groups similar items based on specific features.
Part-to-whole structures are used to present an analysis of a complex entity by examining
each of its salient parts in turn and considering how they work together.
Problem and solution structures are typical of many policy arguments and much
Compare and contrast structures present two items or ideas in a way that allows readers
to make logical judgments
Cause and effect structures rarely present a single cause leading to a single effect or
event. The following diagrams can help students recognize some of the ways