Unit 6. Cognitive development - Coggle Diagram
Unit 6. Cognitive development
Cognitive development and intelligence
Intelligence is defined as the human capacity to understand
, assimilate, learn information and use this knowledge to solve problems and facilitate adaptation.
Intelligence is related to other cognitive processes such as attention, memory, thinking and perception.
Gardner's multiple intelligences theory
Gardner's types of intelligence
Ability to have control and coordination over one's own body
express emotions and feelings
to perform activities
Ability to solve logic and mathematical problems.
Ability to compose and perform
The ability to use words appropriately.
Ability to understand others
Ability to observe and study nature.
Ability to represent reality in three dimensions, establishing relationships (shape, space)
Cognitive process in which we focus our awareness on an object or problem that we want to know or solve.
attention in which the subject intentionally directs his or her
attention towards an object or situation.
the subject's attention is directed towards an object or situation
without any intention to direct action towards that element.
I can't study for the next exam at the same time as I am thinking about plans for the weekend.
chooses stimuli according to their novelty, significance, interest
Related to the person's situation at the time of the stimulus occurrence.
These factors are external to the individual.
Memory is the psychological function or process that enables us to acquire and remember
Retrieval or recall of acquired and stored information,
This process involves both searching for and accessing information in our
records information from the outside for a very short time
Storage of information or consolidation of memory.
Retention of information
evaluated whether the information is relevant and worth sending to long-term memory.
Recording or encoding.
Acquisition or entry of new data into our memory,
this is a large permanent database where all information about
the world and ourselves is stored.
Thinking, as a cognitive process, is the faculty through which a person is able to analyse,understand and coordinate ideas, images, concepts,
6.4.1 Concept formation
Concept formation is the process of classifying information into meaningful categories.
6.4.4 Problem solving
A problem is a situation in which a choice has to be made between several options in order to
achieve a goal or objective.
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Creativity is the ability of human beings to find new, more original and useful solutions to
Strategies for developing creativity
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Reasoning is the ability of human beings to deduce from previous information a conclusion
that did not exist in the initial elements.
children between 2 and 7 years of age use reasoning in which
they draw conclusions from one particular case to another particular case.
starting from a general premise, particular cases are extracted.
from particular cases a general conclusion is reached.
Piaget's cognitivist theory
According to Piaget's theory
, development occurs because there is an interaction between the child and the surrounding environment,
Developmental mechanisms according to Piaget
Aspects of adaptation: assimilation and accommodation
complementary process that modifies the previous schemes by adjusting them to the new situation.
Equilibrium or adaptation:
the two previous processes reach equilibrium with each other and existing structures
the existing mental structures of the person
A scheme is a succession of actions that have an organisation and can be applied to similar situations.
It explains the constant tendency of organisms to maintain equilibrium and achieve adaptation
Cognitive development in the sensorimotor stage (0-24 months)
In this period, the acquisition of knowledge is based on the actions that the child performs on
the environment and on him/herself.
Secondary circular reactions. Visual-motor coordination (4-8 months).
Secondary circular reaction consists of repetition of causal behaviours directed outward.
Coordination of secondary schemas and application of these to new situations (8-12 months)
Now he is interested in the object itself and explores it and tries to understand it by acting on it.
Performs intentional acts towards goals
Primary circular reactions. First habits (1 to 4 months)
Performs actions casually with his body, which he does not yet differentiate very well from the outside world.
Tertiary circular reactions. Discovery of new media by experimentation (12-18 months).
Repetitive actions appear in which the baby deliberately varies the way it performs the action to see what happens.
Discover new ways to achieve desired goals
Innate reflex mechanisms (0 to 1 month)
There is behaviour based on reflexes and, through repetition, these behaviours are consolidated.
Transition to representation. Invention of new media by mental combination (18-24 months).
It initiates in the use of mental representations of reality, thus, it is able to solve some practical problems new to the
Cognitive development in the pre-operational stage (2 to 7 years)
The symbolic function
It is the child's ability to represent the real
there is a close relationship between signifier and signified;
there is a certain relationship between the signifier and the signified
These are internal representations of reality that children imagine but which have no direct correlation with reality at the time.
Children's representations of realities
Imitation occurs without the model being present.
It is the highest level of representation of the symbolic function.
Children deliberately use an object as if it were something else
there is no relationship between the signifier and the signified,