Assessment - Coggle Diagram
Aid in Learning
Shows teachers whether the goals of learning are being met. Teachers can then adapt further teaching to meet students' needs.
Provides feedback to students about how well they understand a given concept and can let them know areas they can study to improve.
Provides feedback to parents to let them know their children's progress and what to work on with them at home.
Can help teachers identify students who may need additional help or resources, as well as exceptionally gifted students.
INTEGRATING ASSESSMENT WITH INSTRUCTION : assessment in teaching and learning games
it should be ongoing and regular,
it should be authentic,
planning what to teach is the same as planning what to assess,
assessment should serve as a system of checks and balances for teaching and learning.
the methods that teachers use do not promote good learning;
feedback often has a negative impact, particularly on low-achieving students, who then believe that they lack ability and so are not able to learn.
clear—articulated explicitly at the beginning of each performance,
relevant—closely related to the goals for the unit,
public—all students in the class know and understand the criteria
occurs frequently from the beginning to the end of the unit;
is both formal and planned and more casual and informal;
provides students with information not only about how well they have carried out performances but also about how they might improve them;
informs the planning of subsequent classes and activities;
comes from a variety of perspectives, including from students' reflections, from peers, and from the teacher
Diagnostic Assessment (Yani)
What It Is
A pre-assessment or pre-test given before teaching a given topic
Subject material corresponds to what the teacher is intending to teach
Typically low-stakes and rarely counted for grades
Why It's Used
Gives teachers an idea of where students currently are at in terms of prior knowledge of a topic, and what skills they are bringing to the table, as well as evaluate their strengths and weaknesses on the topic
Can be given again at the end of a unit to assess students' progress. This can not only be useful for the teacher, but help improve students' self-esteem, because they can see how far they've come.
Teachers can adjust inform their teaching strategy based on this. For example, if most of the class already is familiar with one particular concept, the teacher doesn't need to spend as much time on it. Conversely, students may lack some prior knowledge that the teacher was not expecting, and the teacher may need to cover that in their lesson plans as well.
It helps streamline teaching and make it more efficient by targeting the areas where students need the most help.
Lets teachers tie learning outcomes to specific goals and objectives
Standardized Diagnostic Assessment:
uses well-defined testing methods, gives teachers a more in-depth analysis of student strengths and weaknesses
Concept mapping (students draw a visual diagram of a concept/piece of information and then form connections between its components)
A multiple choice/short answer test with questions about the material to be covered in the upcoming unit
Likert-scale surveys (students choose rankings from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree" on course facts
Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM), in which students take short assessments, the teacher records their scores, and then decides whether to change instruction or not.
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)
Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT)
Group Mathematics Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GMADE)
Reading fluency scales (e.g. Tim Raskinski’s ‘Multi-dimensional Fluency
Scale) that gauge student progress as well as the efficacy of their teaching of reading fluency
Informal Diagnostic Assessment
: spontaneous assessment right before learning begins - lets teachers gather info quickly when they need it
Surveys in which students must tick the boxes of all of the books/concepts/courses/etc. they have been exposed to previously
Discussion boards (e.g. in which students think about questions they have related to an upcoming topic and reflect on them)
Calling on individual students to share what they know about a topic
Entry slips, where the teacher asks a few questions while students record their answers on slips of paper, which the teacher later evaluates
Pre-topic mind maps
Can be difficult to analyze results and modify instruction accordingly in a large class
Can be time-consuming, especially in a large class
generally require special training in order to be administered and scored reliably
Can trigger anxiety in students
Performance Based Assessment (Yuti)
Why PBA is used?
Benefit to Students
They're more engaging.
They encourage children to take ownership of their work.
It stops things from being just a memory test.
It uses real-world examples.
It develops problem-solving skills.
Benefit to Teachers
it offers deeper insight into the learning needs of students
It also provides educators with information about what students have learned, not just how well they can learn.
closely tied to this new way of teaching provide teachers with more information about the learning needs of their students and enable them to modify their methods to meet these needs.
Instruction in most subject areas is being altered to include more practical applications of skills and to incorporate a greater focus on the understanding and combining of content and skills.
Examples of PBA
Demonstrations giving students opportunities to show their mastery of subject-area content and procedures.
Portfolios allowing students to provide a broad portrait of their performance through files that contain collections of students' work, assembled over time.
Experiments testing how well students understand scientific concepts and can carry out scientific processes.
Essays assessing students' understanding of a subject through a written description, analysis, explanation, or summary.
Group projects enabling a number of students to work together on a complex problem that requires planning, research, internal discussion, and group presentation.
Debates are a popular choice in high school and middle school because they allow students to demonstrate many skills
How to create PBA
Identify goals of the performance-based assessment.
Select the appropriate course standards.
Review assessments and identify learning gaps.
Design the scenario with Setting, Role, Audience, Time frame, Produce and such.
Gather or create materials
Develop a learning plan.
How to evaluate PBA
Does the performance assessment cover important skills and knowledge?
Are the test items varied to fairly test students having different experiences, backgrounds, and motivations?
Does the assessment give my child worthwhile educational experiences?
Does the assessment require my child to use higher level thinking and problem-solving skills rather than simply memorizing to determine the answer?
Are teachers receiving training and assistance in designing and using performance assessments?
how to start with students
Begin with the end in mind
Be open and honest about how the class will be graded
Give students a copy of the rubric
What is PBA?
PBAs require students to actively participate in a task to assess their process. The questions or tasks are designed to be practical and interdisciplinary.
Performance-based learning and performance-based assessment are methods of teaching and appraising children based on how they carry out specific tasks or activities, as opposed to more traditional test formats. This approach allows children to demonstrate their knowledge and how they would apply it to real-world scenarios
The majority of PBA share key characteristics. First and foremost, the assessment accurately measures one or more specific course standards. Additionally, it is: Complex, Authentic, Process/product-oriented, open-ended, Time-bound
The definition of performance-based assessments varies greatly depending on author, disciple, publication, and intended audience. In general, a performance-based assessment measures students' ability to apply the skills and knowledge learned from a unit or units of study.
Summative Assessment (Shian)
What is it?
Assessment used evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark.
Typically high stakes, which means that they have a high point value (written in grade book)
They determine whether students have learned what they were expected to learn
Help you understand how prepared your students are for the next academic year
It's evaluative rather than diagnostic
Examples of Summative:
These are regional or local examinations given to multiple students. It gives information about student success and can be used to compare with students from different countries. In my island (most of the Caribbean islands) we have CXC, you complete these exams in your final year of secondary school.
Portfolio/ Presentations(Rubric based)
When presentations are used as summative assessments they are used with rubrics, so the students know exactly what to include and what they should create. This helps students to be creative in demonstrating what they've learnt and also reinforces what they've learnt by listening to other presentations.
Mid Term/ Final Exams
Similar to standardized test but they are school wide instead or regional. They are designed for a particular group of students and a particular topic for example, Form 4 Biology exam will be designed for the form 4 bio students based on what they covered throughout their form 4 terms.
For subjects like science and English its a great way to see what students have learned through out the semester.
It's not really recommended because you can't determine the actual learning of a single student and group work may be distributed unevenly. However it doesn't allow teachers to grade on collaboration skills.
Can be biased
Summative evaluations may contain prejudice. Teachers have the option to give some pupils preferential treatment when grading exams. The teacher's honesty and integrity are crucial to the success of summative exams.
The amount of creativity is diminished as a result of the rigid standards for summative evaluation. When using a traditional assessment technique, students have little opportunity to demonstrate their originality.
Reflects on teaching ability
When teachers only have one opportunity to assess student achievement, their teaching standards are compromised. They are unable to immediately alter their instructional strategies.
Creative Ways to Use Summative Assessment in Your Classroom
Short Film: Instead of writing an essay or answering a question paper, students can record their answers and incorporate visual aids, interviews and much more to make their final project creative while still showcasing what they've learnt.
Infographics/ Venn diagrams: Students can use different visual aids in defining terms, statistics and even timelines depending on the subject and Summative Assessment detail.
Why It's Used?
Increases Study Motivation in Students
It keeps students motivated throughout the duration of the lesson. Students that receive good grades are motivated to continue their hard work.
Implements Learning/Applying Knowledge
It gives students the chance to put their knowledge to use. Students are taught to apply their knowledge and abilities to address problems in the actual world through a suitable summative evaluation program.
Finds/Reveals Learning Gaps
Most teachers administer unit evaluations following each chapter to determine how much knowledge students have retained in preparation for the following unit. Students that struggle in the lesson can get more coaching or motivation.
Gives teachers thorough insights. It demonstrates what was effective and ineffective during the academic year. Teachers might adjust their curricula based on this information to enhance learning requirements for the upcoming year.
Identifies Teaching Gaps/Measuring Teaching Effectiveness
When you grade your students' tests and the results fall short of what you had anticipated, it serves as a wake-up call. This indicates that your present teaching strategies are ineffective. You must implement a fresh teaching approach in your classroom.