Implications of Border Conflicts and Territorial Disputes towards Malaysia…
Implications of Border Conflicts and Territorial Disputes towards Malaysia
Destabilisation of diplomatic relations (Wilson)
Fighting for the benefits
Conflicts happened because:
natural resources of the region are a very distinctive feature
geostrategic situation of the disputed area
the primary source of food, accounting for 8% of the world’s total commercial fishery production
Attractive to littoral states.
These states do not always share a common position.
Fight and having poor diplomatic relations
Mass casualties (Sania)
Lahad Datu crisis caused death of the Malaysian security forces.
Sulu gunmen killed security officers with cruel and brutal:
Another member of the security forces even survived being smallpox when both sides of his hands and head were cut (Utusan Malaysia, 8 March, 2013).
Their stomach was taken from body and their chest were split and removed from internal organs.
The body of national hero also cut into few pieces and and throw into sea.
Decrease in economic activities/transactions as well as tourism activities (Aleena)
Due to the fear of encountering armed Sulu forces after the Lahad Datu invasion (according to The Star, 10 March, 2013),
fishermen in Lahad Datu refused to go to sea to fish
shop owners closed their shops early at 6 o'clock
plantation farmers were reluctant to go to their estates
the profits gained by the local shop owners decreased from RM200 per day to as little as RM50 and below (Sin Chew, 13 March, 2013).
the price of seafood and basic necessities such as rice, milk, and sugar in the local market also fluctuated tremendously because the demand was more than the supply in the market.
For instance, one kilogram of fish that usually cost RM5 increased to RM10 per kilogram (Nanban, 7 March, 2013).
the locals of Lahad Datu who mostly stayed at home due to safety concerns had lost their monthly income and had to dig into their savings to finance their daily expenses (The Star, 10 March, 2013).
Due to the invasion,
foreign citizens from countries such as China, Canada, Australia and New Zealand were advised to avoid travelling to Sabah.
This resulted in the decline of international tourist arrivals throughout Malaysia and the rest of Southeast Asian countries.
Based on the statistics of tourist arrivals in Sabah on the tourism website, the state saw the lowest number of foreign tourists in February, March and April of 2013 during the invasion (Izyanti et al., 2016).
Armed conflicts (Gery)
Malayan Emergency (1948-1960)
ME happened because
The Malayan Emergency arose from political and ideological uncertainty in Asia following the Second World War,
long-standing antipathy between the British and the Malayan Chinese.
British resumed control after the war, the new administration failed to act firmly or consistently to solve social and economic problems in Malaya.
Impacts of ME
discussion of the deportations
resettlement and destruction of villages
What is ME 1938-1960
Anti–British National Liberation War (1948–1960), was a guerrilla war fought in British Malaya between communist pro-independence fighters of the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA) and the military forces of the British Empire and Commonwealth.