Works in Progress & Quality Management Level 1 - Coggle Diagram
Works in Progress & Quality Management Level 1
What is the role of a site inspector?
On larger projects it may be appropriate to appoint a resident site inspector (sometimes referred to as a clerk of works or building quality officer) to inspect the construction works as they proceed on behalf of the client. The site inspector provides an independent assessment of the works and will generally report to the contract administrator. In general Site inspectors do not supervise the works (which might be perceived as taking some responsibility for the works, when in fact the contractor is responsible for them), they merely inspect the works in order to give an independent view to the contract administrator. They are likely to keep a site diary, attend construction progress meetings and to produce regular written reports. While site inspectors must work closely with the contractor, it is important that they remain independent
Duties of a site inspector
Monitoring progress against the programme.
Assessing whether the works comply with legal requirements such as health and safety legislation.
Assessing whether the works are being carried out in accordance with the contract documents (which may include taking measurements and samples).
Monitoring site conditions to ensure that work is undertaken in accordance with manufacturers recommendations.
Providing regular reports (often weekly).
Attending construction progress meetings.
Keeping records of:
Drawings and instructions received.
Health or safety issues.
Other significant events.
Building Control Inspection
Building control inspections are carried out to verify compliance with the building regulations. These can be carried out by a local authority building control inspector or by an approved inspector. Inspections may be required for:
Excavations, before filling.
Foundations before covering up.
Damp proof course.
New drains before covering up.
Ground beams and steelwork.
Other types of inspections
Planning inspections to verify compliance with planning permissions, conditions and obligations.
Inspections by funding bodies for the release of money.
Inspections by insurers.
Highways Authority inspection and adoption of roads and sewers.
Environmental Health Officer inspections related to pollution (mud, noise, smoke, water) and certain installations (such as drainage and kitchens).
Fire Officer inspection of fire escapes, and for hazards, storage of certain materials and protection systems.
Archaeological inspection of excavations.
Health and safety inspectors.
- Quality control (QC) is the part of quality management that ensures products and services comply with requirements. It is a work method that facilitates the measurement of the quality characteristics of a unit, compares them with the established standards, and analyses the differences between the results obtained and the desired results in order to make decisions which will correct any differences.
Technical specifications define the type of controls that must be undertaken to ensure the construction works are carried out correctly. They include not only products and materials, but also the execution and completion of the works
What types of quality control can be implemented on a project?
Inspection or verification of finished product
s. The aim is to filter the products before they reach the client, so that products that do not comply with requirements are discarded or repaired.
Statistical quality control
- control can be applied to the final product (acceptance control) or during the production process (process control). Statistical controls at reception establish sampling plans with clearly-defined acceptance or rejection criteria, and complete batches are tested by means of random sampling.
Examples of quality control on a project
1) The control of concrete received by the contractor can be carried out by an independent entity
2) The execution of steelworks can be controlled by the project manager (on behalf of the client)
3) The construction company can establish an internal control for the execution of the building work.
- Planned and systematic activities necessary to provide adequate confidence that the product or service will meet given requirements
- A series of international quality management standards that set uniform guidelines for processes to ensure products conform to customer requirements.
The ISO 9000 standards consists of four basic interdependent standards supported by guides, technical reports and technical specifications:
ISO 9000: Quality management.
ISO 9001: Quality management systems - Requirements.
It is a standard that can be used to certify the efficiency of a quality management system. The principles that underlie the management of quality in these standards are the following
1) Customer focus
3) Involvement of people
4) Process approach
5) System approach to management
6) Continual improvement
7) Factual approach to decision making
8) Mutually beneficial supplier relationships.
ISO 9004: Managing for the sustained success of an organization - A quality management approach.
ISO 19011: Guidelines on internal and external audits of quality management systems.
- A quality manual is an organisation-wide document that provides the reader with a complete understanding of the expectations of the organisation. It considers the risks that the organisation is likely to face from both inside and outside the organisation and defines how it will deal with those risks. In some cases, the organisation will decide that the risk can be mitigated by implementing a process that is intended to manage the behaviours of staff at all levels. In other cases, the organisation may decide that the potential for the risk manifesting is so low that it will note it and keep a weather eye out.
- A quality plan is written to meet certain specific events. It may be written by an organisation to define the arrangements for managing a project. It may define the actions to be taken by sub-contractors who are contracted to deliver a defined element of the works, such as the electrical installation. Risks associated with the works will be analysed and appropriate arrangements defined. It may be required as part of a bid submission.
Cashflow in Construction
- In construction, the term 'cash flow' typically refers to an analysis of when costs will be incurred and how much they will amount to during the life of a project.
Predicting cash flow is important in order to ensure that an appropriate level of funding is in place and that suitable draw-down facilities are available.
Client/Employer cash flow
- Until the main contractor has been appointed, client cash flow projections are likely to be based only on agreed fee payment schedules for consultants and a simple division of the construction cost over the likely construction period (or perhaps an allocation of construction cost over an s-curve distribution). It is only when the main contractor is appointed, a master programme prepared and some form of payment schedule agreed that cash flow projections become reliable.
Contractor Cashflow importance
Contractors have to have money coming in to pay suppliers and subcontractors and for the day-to-day running of the business. For example, Carillion's cash flow was very low, leading to their liquidation in January 2018.
1) A cash flow forecast is a document that analyzes and predicts your future cash flow based on your current and historical financial data. By looking at where your finances currently stand and your historical financial activities, you are able to determine where your cash flow will stand at some point in the future.
2) A cash flow forecast is an important business tool that establishes whether there is enough cash to run a business or to expand it. It will also reveal when more cash is going out of the business, than in.
3) A cash flow forecast (also called a 'cash flow budget' or 'cash flow projection') helps identify whether a firm needs to borrow, how much, when, and how it will repay the loan.
Difference between cashflow forecast and projections
- Cash flow forecasts are based on the "most probable" scenario, and help you identify any potential bottlenecks. Cash flow projections may be based on less probable scenarios as they contain more hypothetical and help you plan for best and worst case scenarios i.e. price changes.
Contract Administrator Vs Clerk of Works
- In the construction industry, the contract administrator is the individual responsible for administering the construction standard contracts.
Who can conduct the contract administrator role
Client representative or Employers agent
What does the contract administrator's role include?
1) Inviting and processing tenders.
2) Preparing contract documents for execution.
3) Administrating change control procedures.
4) Seeking instructions from the client in relation to the contract.
5) Issuing instructions such as variations, or relating to prime cost sums or making good defects.
6) Considering claims.
7) Chairing construction progress meetings.
8) Preparing and issuing construction progress reports.
9) Co-ordinating and instructing site inspectors.
10) Agreeing commissioning and testing procedures.
11) Agreeing defects reporting procedures.
12) Ensuring that project documentation is issued to the client.
13) Issuing certificates of practical completion and interim certificates.
14) Collating and issuing schedules of defects.
15) Issuing the certificate of making good defects.
16) Issuing the final certificate.
Clerk of works
- A clerk of works or clerk of the works (CoW) is employed by an architect or a client on a construction site. The role is primarily to represent the interests of the client in regard to ensuring that the quality of both materials and workmanship are in accordance with the design information such as specification and engineering drawings, in addition to recognized quality standards.
What does a clerk of works role include?
1) Making sure that work is carried out to the client's standards, specification, correct materials, workmanship and schedule
2) Becoming familiar with all the relevant drawings and written instructions, checking them and using them as a reference when inspecting work
3) Making visual inspections
4) Taking measurements and samples on site to make sure that the work and the materials meet the specifications and quality standards
5) Being familiar with legal requirements and checking that the work complies with them.
6) Having a working knowledge of health and safety legislation and bringing any shortfalls observed to the attention of the resident engineer.
7) Advising the contractor about certain aspects of the work, particularly when something has gone wrong, but this advice should not be interpreted as an instruction