Parliament: - Mary was 37 when she came to the throne. - During EVI, she had resisted protestant reform just as under H8. - While DoS in power, she had been allowed to follow Catholicism in private, and she had remained on good terms with the Protector and E. With the swing towards Calvinism under N, increasing pressure had to be put on Mary to abandon Catholicism and to conform to the doctrines of the CofE. - She had received constant support and advice from Charles V during this period. It was fear of the Habsburgs that may have prevented reformers from making extreme measures against her. She mistrusted her councillors as a result when she becme queen, and leant on advice from the imperial ambassador, Simon Renard. Renard and Charles V thought it a futile gesture when Mary proclaimed herself Queen on 11 July 1553. However, she was greeted by Londoners with enthusiasm. Political prisoners such as the Duke of Norfolk and Stephen Gardiner were released. - Mary showed leniency towards her opponents following advice from Cahrles V. Only N and two of his closest confederates were executed. Some members of N's council were imprisoned, however, others such as Paget joined the new PC. - Mary also insistent that England should return to the Church of Rome, though she was also convinced that national safety depended on a close alliance with the Habsburgs. Until 1555, this appeared to be a good strategy, but M's popularity with the gentry declined until death in 1558.