Ch. 2 Lighting Production Team: Organization & Responsibilities -…
Lighting Production Team: Organization & Responsibilities
A composite side view, drawn to scale, of the set, showing the hanging position of the instruments in relation to the physical structure of the theatre, set, and stage equipment; primarily used to determine effective masking positions in a proscenium theatre.
A company that presents several different plays alternately in one theatre in the course of a season. In the context of lighting design, adjustments are normally made to the focus and color of lighting instruments for each play each time it is performed.
The lighting design for each play uses this basic plot, but additional instruments will be added and adjustments may be made to the focus and color of some instruments in the basic plot. While these design features will be placed on the plot and paperwork for each play, the physical changes of focus and color media must be accomplished each time that there is a changeover between plays. T
Changing from one play to another in a repertory theatre situation. Involves exchanging sets, costumes, and properties and making adjustments to lighting and sound.
The lighting designer is responsible for the design, installation, and, occasionally, the operation of the lighting and special electrical effects associated with lighting used in the production.
lighting designers frequently drew sketches or showed visual examples—paintings, photographs, and so forth—to demonstrate the type and style of lighting that they intended to create.
the lighting designer produces a light plot, which is a scale ground-plan drawing that details the placement of the lighting instruments relative to the physical structure of the theatre and the location of the set(s)
also produces the lighting sectional , which is a composite side view, also drawn to scale. The side view shows the set, lighting fixtures, and masking
The lighting designer also has the responsibility to compile the instrument schedule and channel hookup sheet, which are forms used to record all of the technical data about each instrument used in the production
An improvisational style of light board operation widely used in concert settings where the exact musical content is also improvised.
individuals who program the specialized consoles used to control conventional and/or automated/moving light fixtures.
may also control/program projectors being used if a projection specialist is not assigned to the production.
generally work under the aesthetic direction of the lighting designer.
may be freelance technicians and they may also be associated with companies that manufacture or distribute automated fixtures or projectors.
Programmers are usually hired for individual projects to program and/or operate these highly specialized fixtures and projectors rather than being employed by a producing organization for the full run of a show or for an entire season.
performances with multi-week (or longer) runs, programmers normally train other (less expensive) electricians to serve as board operators for the specialized consoles.
Assistant Lighting Designer
The appearance—the way the light looks onstage—of a particular cue.
A designer responsible for the entire artistic look—scenery, costumes, lighting, properties—of a production.
Assistant to the Lighting Designer —
The assistant to the lighting designer primarily functions as a general assistant and may or may not be present at the venue of the production.
Assistant Lighting Designer —
The assistant lighting designer may create any or all of the associated paperwork—light plot, lighting sectional, instrument schedule, and so forth—as requested by the lighting designer.
Depending on the nature and personality/disposition of the lighting designer, as well as the complexity of the show, the assistant lighting designer may focus or participate in focusing the instruments, write cues, update paperwork, or perform any of the other myriad tasks necessary to make the lighting design come alive onstage.
He or she may also make some minor design decisions, design some of the cues, and substitute for the lighting designer in his or her absence.
Associate Lighting Designer —
The associate lighting designer effectively performs all the duties of a lighting designer while under the artistic direction of a more senior designer.
The associate designer follows the artistic vision, light plot, and cuing of the original production as closely as possible. But each new venue almost always requires that adjustments be made.
updates the paperwork—plot, cues, and so forth—to reflect any changes that have been made.
Production Design Team
A directional term meaning light that approaches the stage from above, or on top of, the stage floor.
To block the audience’s view—generally of backstage equipment and space.
A conference of appropriate production personnel to share information.
The production meeting is probably the single most important device for ensuring smooth communication between the members of the production design team—the producer; the director; the scenic, costume, lighting, and sound designers, and a projection specialist/designer if projections are being used on the production.
The initial production meetings will probably be attended only by the production design team. The purpose of these early meetings—ideally held on a daily or relatively frequent basis—is to develop the production concept.
After the designers begin to produce their drawings, sketches, and plans, the production meetings decrease in frequency to about once a week, and their main purpose is then to keep other members of the team informed about progress and changes in all production areas.
The last production meeting is usually held just before the opening of the production.
The lighting designer frequently meets with the director during the production meetings
Either way, the lighting designer must meet with the director—either face-to-face or electronically—to learn of his or her thoughts regarding the production. If the director decides to change or adapt the script, the lighting designer has to know about it so that the lighting can be adjusted accordingly.
The lighting designer must work closely with the scenic designer because the work of one directly affects the work of the other.
Both the scenic and lighting designers will often have to compromise on their designs to achieve a compatible blend of the two.
the lighting designer must hold discussions with the costume designer to learn the color palette being used on the costumes. It is the lighting designer’s responsibility to see that the costume designer’s palette remains unchanged when the costumes appear onstage under the lights.
The ultimate goal of the production design team is the creation of an atmosphere and environment that support the production concept.
The process of placing lighting instruments in their specified locations.
The process of connecting a lighting instrument to its specific stage circuit.
under the supervision of the lighting designer and his/her staff, implements the lighting design. He or she is directly responsible for the acquisition, installation, and maintenance of all lighting equipment and the supervision of the crews who hang, focus, and run the lighting equipment during the production.
responsible for hanging and circuiting the equipment used in the lighting design. Each instrument is hung in the exact position shown on the light plot and is checked by the master electrician and crew to determine that it is functioning and circuited according to the instructions of the lighting designer.
maintaining that look throughout the run of the production
Controlling or operating some aspect of a production.
Those who work on the stage lighting for a production.
A counterweighted batten or fixed metal pipe that holds lighting instruments or equipment.
A vertical pipe with a heavy base, frequently equipped with horizontal crossbars or sidearms. Used as a hanging position for lighting instruments.
The stage term for “light bulbs” used in stage lighting instruments.
To connect a stage circuit to a dimmer circuit (hard patch) or, in computer lighting consoles, to virtually connect a channel to a dimmer (soft patch).
To insert color media in a color frame and place on a lighting instrument. Color media made from gelatin or plastic.
The individuals for running the various technical areas—sets, lights, costumes, sound, props—during rehearsals and performances; also known as “run crew.”
responsible for the operation of the lighting equipment during rehearsals and performances. Depending on the complexity of the production, as few as one or as many as five or more electricians are needed to run the lights for a production.
A generic term used to describe all types of lighting control consoles.
A directive for action: for example, a change in the lighting.
To increase (fade-in) or decrease (fade-out) the intensity of the lights.
An interconnecting device that allows you to connect any stage circuit into any dimmer.
In theatres with patch panels , it may be necessary for the running crew electricians to repatch during the performance.
Occasionally, a circuit must be patched into or removed from a dimmer during a performance.
(1) To remove one circuit from a dimmer and replace it with another during a performance.
(2) To shift a dimmer from one channel and to another (on computer lighting consoles).
hanging or hang crew
places the lighting instruments and associated equipment in the positions designated by the light plot
The proper wattage and type of lamp are also indicated on the plot or hookup sheet, and it is the electrician’s responsibility to ensure that the instruments are “lamped” as required.
the electricians also circuit and patch the instruments. Finally, the electricians who are hanging the show may also gel the instruments and, under the supervision of the lighting designer or assistant/associate designer, focus the instruments.
they should be able to sense the rhythm of the play and integrate the various fades and other movements of the lights into the flow of the performance.
lighting production team
The personnel who work on lighting for a production