How did the Fascist regime treat women? - Coggle Diagram
How did the Fascist regime treat women?
WWI increased women's employment opportunities, but afterwards measures were taken to restrict employment (especially after the rise of unemployment, 1927)
Main target: women in 'unnatural' occupations (school teachers, office workers & professionals etc.)
Mid-1920s + : women were excluded from certain teaching jobs
1933: state imposed a limit of 10% on state jobs for women
1938: extended to many private firms, though it was reversed during the war.
Fascists didn't challenge women's traditional importance in agriculture & had to accept that millions worked in industry
several laws passed protecting women at work (to prevent infertility etc.)
training to stay home, to be effective housekeepers & mothers.
excluded from the most prestigious posts in secondary schools - teaching Latin, Italian, History & philosophy - so more taught Maths & Science.
lack of job opportunities led to an increase in women at university (1914: 6% --> 1938: 15%)
had firm views on what women should look like
well-rounded & sturdy rather than thin, elegant women
the state criticised cosmetics, high heels, trousers for women, and afro & rhythm dancing.
National Committee for Cleaning Up Fashion campaign against 'horrid vice' of indecent and scandalous dress
Italians still went to cinemas to see American actresses + women performed scantily dreessed in athletic parads
confused attitude to female sport
could promote health, vigour, discipline & national pride
might distract women from their main job of child production, encourage lesbianism & female liberation
mussolini feared female involvement in sports (riding, skiing, cycling) because it was believed they caused infertility