CHAPTER 4: EPISTEMOLOGY, Does not have to be universally verified or…
CHAPTER 4: EPISTEMOLOGY
Theory of Truth
The Coherence theory (Hanis Athirah binti Lokman Hakim, A185708)
A statement is true if it coheres with our beliefs about other statements
The truth of a statement is inferred from our network of other beliefs.
Example : we would know that there really is a tv in the room because a room is a space that can be occupied, and a tv can easily occupy a room.
The Pragmatism Theory (Hanis Athirah binti Lokman Hakim, A185708)
A statement is true if it is useful/beneficial to us
Example : If we perceive the sunset as beautiful then the sunset is beautiful.
Considers an individual, subjective life
The Correspondence theory (Hanis Athirah binti Lokman Hakim, A185708)
A true statement corresponds with reality or with how things really are in the world
Example : We say that there is a tv in the room because there is, indeed, a tv in the room.
Theory of Truth between Rationalism and Empiricism
(Kaila Jauza Tsabita A185568)
Rationalism looks for logical consistency.
Empiricism adds evidence that can be repeatedly validated through sensory input to the "head-logic" of rationalism.
History of Epistemology
Renaissance Period (Nur Ain Hikmah binti Zulkarnain A901714)
Spanned the gap between the early modern and contemporary philosophies of knowledge
In this time period, theoretical ideas and judgement are remodeled into theoretical propositional attitudes, sentences and meanings.
Interest in epistemology resurged as a reaction against Neo-Kantian and Neo-Hegelian idealism of the 19th century
Major developments in physics, logic, and mathematics also contributed to the resurgence by raising new methodological issues.
Enlightenment Period (Nur Ain Hikmah binti Zulkarnain A901714)
The catalyst for progress was seen in the development of the natural sciences.
The rationalist philosophy of René Descartes and Francis Bacon's empiricism set the groundwork for enlightened thinking.
Scientific Revolution (Nur Ain Hikmah binti Zulkarnain A901714)
Epistemological rupture occurs
A period where the dissolution of philosophical traditions occurs and new scientific epistemologies, methods, and knowledge standards were established.
The scholastic period placed a huge emphasis on biblical interpretations and Aristotelian principles. This led to the development of empirical research using experiment, observation and mathematical calculation.
The concept of scholastic philosophy was replaced with scientific method during this period
Industrial revolution (Gibran Maulana Salafy, A184142)
The industrial revolution changed how people think about knowledge and understanding by improving scientific inquiry and introducing new ways of collecting and analyzing data.
This has led to new technologies and methods for understanding the world.
Reasoning / Logic
Tradition (Nur Ain Hikmah binti Zulkarnain A901714)
Was one of the earliest sources of knowledge. Traditions laid the basis for the development and advancement of other schools of thought, like empiricism.
The theory that the origin of all knowledge is sense experience.
Empiricism (Nur Ain Hikmah binti Zulkarnain A901714)
Tabula rasa ('clean slate') has emerged during the 11th century, as founded by the Persian philosopher Avicenna.
Tabula rasa: the addition of data to the mind, which is a blank slate at birth, comes from sensory experiences.
The Sophists were the first empiricists in the Western philosophy.
Avicenna argued knowledge acquisition is derived from empirical familiarity with the elements of the word
Empirical rationalism (Gibran Maulana Salafy, A184142)
Empirical rationalists argue that knowledge claims should be supported by both empirical evidence and logical argument.
Combines both elements of empiricism and rationalism.
is frequently linked to the Enlightenment intellectuals of the 17th and 18th centuries, such John Locke and Immanuel Kant, who attempted to integrate the philosophical and scientific investigations of rationalism and empiricism.
Hellenistic Period (Gibran Maulana Salafy, A184142)
Founded the Epicurean school of philosophy
Contended that attaining a state of ataraxia, or being free from pain and suffering, is the primary objective of human existence and that this may be accomplished by pursuing knowledge and avoiding needless suffering.
Linguistic turn stage (Nur Ain Hikmah binti Zulkarnain A901714)
Primarily on the relations between language, language users, and the world.
Characterized by a focus on language, known as the linguistic turn, as well as clarity and rigor in arguments, employing formal logic, mathematics, and, to a lesser extent, natural sciences.
The role of power relationships, personalisation, and discussion in the "construction" of truth and worldviews was called into question by postmodern philosophy.
The existence of an objective reality and moral values were seemingly rejected by postmodernists
Deconstructive stage (Nur Ain Hikmah binti Zulkarnain A901714)
French in origin (Gibran Maulana Salafy, A184142)
'Deconstruction' was coined by the French philosopher Jacques Derrida in the mid-20th century. Deconstruction is concerned with exposing the underlying assumptions and structures that shape a text or discourse, and with revealing the inherent contradictions and paradoxes within it.
The theory of structuralism in critical linguistics. As the name implies, deconstruction is the decomposition of structure and then innovation and reorganization.
(Great Nasya Zafira, A184857)
Epistemology is one of the primary studies of philosophy, and this study has a relation to quantum mechanics, cognitive science
: One of the subdivision on philosophy The theory that study on how human can acquire knowledge, furthermore epistemology itself including the interpretation of looking over into the origin and the ability of human knowledge.
Conditions of Knowledge (Great Nasya Zafira, A184857)
Knowing something has a good reason to believe, and the knowledge can be held the accountability
Only accept the cognition/knowledge that we believe
Knowledge must be based on the truth
Main School of Thoughts (Gibran Maulana Salafy, A184142)
Relying on reason for source of knowledge
5 senses nothing to do with the truth
For example: the ultimate court of appeal where right or wrong is judged
Claims experience and observation is the source of truth and knowledge
Knowledge is only gathered through the 5 senses
For example: measurement: like measuring a yield of a field by weighing the vegetables produced
Belief principles are undeniably true without being doubted or considering other opinions
Rejection of knowledge that does not have strong evidence (can even be common sense)
The ability of gaining knowledge that can't be taken from inference or observation
The idea that individuals or groups can have specialized knowledge a particular subject
The Integration of Rationalism, Empiricism and Dogmatism (Nur Ain Hikmah binti Zulkarnain A901714)
The integration of rationalism, empirical science and the dogma of religion make up the ultimate truth, or very strong knowledge
Tradition (Dogmatism) as a source of knowledge
Knowledge in Islam
Revealed knowledge: divine revelation from Quran and Sunnah
Derived knowledge: born of rational-empirical knowledge
The definition of the human mind from rational, empirical and dogmatical perspectives
The human mind from a rational perspective
Rationally, the human mind is a tool of which can be used to obtain the truth through its innate rational capabilities.
The human mind from an empirical perspective
Tabula rasa theory: the mind is a blank slate from birth and data addition comes from sensory experiences
The human mind from a dogmatical perspective
the divine revelation is embraced by the human mind (‘Aql) in Islam, as the supreme source of knowledge.
Does not have to be universally verified or validated for it to be regarded as true
Theory of Truth between Religions
(Kaila Jauza Tsabita A185568)
God is known as omnipotent, omniscient, perfectly good and all loving creator of the universe.
According to reformed epistemologists, one can really and quickly believe in god without the use of an argument.