interior design since 1900 by Anne Massey - Coggle Diagram
interior design since 1900 by Anne Massey
After the Industrial Revolution appears a large middle class in European cities that wants style in their houses
Wallpaper, textiles and carpets are available for everyone, express wealth and status
C.F.A Voysey, inspires designers and architects in Britain, America and Europe. Designed houses for middle class people, made textiles, carpets and furniture of high quality.
Arts and Crafts movement, movement: "turn our artist into craftsmen and our craftsmen into artists".
William Morris, Modest English houses with red brick.
Against mass production, use of oak wood, hand made.
Japanese influence, flat patterns, drawn form nature and colorful.
He was a successful entrepreneur produced well made textiles, furniture and carpets.
Mass production used for manufacturing most consumer goods
Adolf Loos, first designer to reject ornaments in interior design.
He was an Austrian Architect, lived in America, close with Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Right.
Author of Ornament and Crime.
Created comfortable interiors rather than ostentatious.
New materials and technology
AEG, llgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft. Patent owners, factories and used cleaned line, modern with high technology materials.
AEG turbine factory, concrete with exposed steel. No use of ornaments. Mass production of pre fabricated houses and furniture.
De Stijil, 1917 Holland, inspired by Neoplatonic style.
Stijil, theories reached Bauhaus. Mystical and crafts curriculum.
Russian constructivism theories reach Bauhaus, after Russian Revolution.
Bauhaus lamps, by Brandt, Jucker and Wilhelm, robust, functional and stylish.Best known products are the chairs, light and strong.
Barcelona 1929, Exhibition. Mies van der Rohe, Barcelona Pavillion, Barcelona Chair and stool. Luxury plain materials, simple colors, and use of steel in furniture.
Le Corbusier, Purist Aesthetics.
Modern Movement is stablished in the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Photos of works by Corbusier, Mies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius etc.
Classical inspirational with smooth surfaces, geometric shapes, luxury materials, and exotic. Inspired in Pre War France designers.
Metal and bronze finishes. And use of exotic animal leather.
Was recalling the good times of Britain.
Well received in NY, new country wants to show it´s economic presence with the use of design. Reflects inspiration of mass production, to be able to do high quality objects.
Used in Wall st, Hollywood to represent style, luxury, modern style and play with lighting, use of mirrors and glass.
Interior decoration = profession
Caused by social and economic factors
American millionaires, wanted to recreate palaces
After the WWl women started getting involved
Restoration of important interiors after the war
Candace Wheeler, American Textile Designer, established Tiffany L.C with other artists. Most successful decorating company in America
Elsie de Wolfe, pioneer in America. Actress that started decorating houses of wealth theatrical agents. Wanted to get light, air and comfort to the dark.
Before Wolfe, people only wanted to recreate de Victorian and Renaissance time, she took out the decorative plates, oil paintings, rococo mirrors etc.
Henry Clay Flick, commissioned decoration in Sir Richard Wallace in London
Developed in America, first time that America is first
Many European designers and architects had moved to America
America had design firms all over the world
Quickbroner Team invent the open office concept, huge floors, with a lot of mobility, that defines hierarchies, meanwhile it was easy to control.
Le Corbusier, works all over the world but specially in Asia. Creates a more organic modernism.
Frank Lloyd Wright, works in a more organic and sculptural way.
Guggenheim Museum, organic form, one single spiraling ramp.
Eams, mass production, good design, new techniques. Manufactured by Knoll Furniture Company and Herman Miller.
In Europe, France was influenced by the US and adopted modernism after the war. England was forced to do so during the war in order to be efficient.
American families move more form house to house. And have more economic resources. Wanted to make a statement with their house.
Women stoped working as before because men came back from war and needed jobs. Wife, was in charge of the house, targeted by advertisements, new domestic gadgets, Streamlined designs, design obsolete was important.
In England people wanted simple design, economy recovering form the war. Contemporary design.
Designs contained plastic, where fashionable in the US. People wanted to update to a new one every year,
Pop, caused by the need of young people to distance themselves form the old people. Made of classical forms with exotic colors that where glamorous.
Pop furniture, was cheap and funny, people just used them for some months. Used fake exotic skins, also people where interested in new discoveries.
The mall was born in the United States, some try to replicate nature or iIalian plazas.
Post- Modern era
In the 1970, reaction against modernism
Architects made this movement
Richard Rogers, buildings mix new with old technologies.
Le Corbusier, challenged elistisdm and thought that well made and designed objects could reach the masses
Used industrial materials, Ben Kelly, furniture of waste-wiring, bricks and rusty model.
Hi- Tech movement, In the 1980 evolved to a minimal. Norman Foster, buildings with a lot of glass and exposed metal.
Inspiration on art deco and argued that mass production had important messages to architects
Deconstructivist architecture, make objects that look like are broken.
Frank Gehry, Kisho Kurokawa, Fumihiko Maki, Aukett Associates...
Offices changed, there was more flexibility, also new technologies on leisure centers, flat TVs are present in more spaces, development of more boutique hotels.
The Sustainability of interior design
Today designers are conscious about the benefits of using more sustainable materials, increment use of wood, also the toxicity of some materials and life cycle of materials
Use of natural light and the increment of glass technology. Cars that can make their glasses darker, glasses anti UV, thermocromatic glass.
Interest of refit and refurbishing old buildings, and the reduction of energy intensive construction practices.
Video installations in spaces in order to use less materials, galleries are old industrial building in city centers converted into museums with the latest technology. Great Court, British Museum by Foster and Partners.
Luxury brands use old building to put flagship stores, restaurants and hotels. Buildings become galleries and stores for branding purposes. Virgin Airways, use of colors and branding on the airplanes design.