INDIA-AFRICA by Atrishekhar Sir TICS-IAS - Coggle…
INDIA-AFRICA by Atrishekhar Sir TICS-IAS
● Trade at $ 66.7 bn
● India is now Africa’s third-largest trade partner.
● 5th largest investor
Reducing dependence on gulf for oil & gas-Nigeria is the 5th largest crude oil supplier to India
Agriculture-India has entered into agreements with Malawi and Mozambique for the import of pulses
proposals to create a jointly-owned brand of Africa-Kollam cashews.
CHINA’S GROWING FOOTPRINT IN AFRICA
● China launched 'Going Out' policy in 2001
● China is Africa’s biggest bilateral trade partner
● key arms supplier to the Continent
● Increasing Africa’s dependency on China
China’s projects in Africa
The four major areas of China’s interest are natural resources, maritime interest, financial assistance and infrastructural projects and infrastructure investment.
• China is also funding $200 million for the construction of the African Union’s headquarters in Addis Ababa.
• It has also made a significant investment in railway building, the Addis-Djibouti railway line connecting the and-locked country with Eritrean ports in the Red Sea.
• China’s interest in Africa is due to the presence of natural resources like oil and coal. It has invested $400 million in the Mombasa oil terminal.
• China is also interested in metallic minerals such as gold, iron ore, and precious stone along with chemicals,oil and natural gas in Ethiopia.
• In maritime interest, China has its military base in Djibouti and is also willing to develop the Eritrea coast
Why is Africa claimed as the “second continent”?
China’s policy of “Going Out”encouraged State owned companies to venture abroad, but fine tuning this policy had led the private companies to gain access to natural resources and continue with the agenda of debt trap diplomacy.
• China’s first military base outside its mainland is in Djibouti.
• China is Africa’s biggest bilateral trade partner - 62% of African bilateral debt is owed to Chinese creditors.
● Geostrategic - threat of radicalism, piracy
● Geopolitical - permanent seat at UNSC
● Eco- growing middle class, agr land
● Energy security
Europeans termed Africa as a “dark continent” but today world is viewing it as “Continent of hope”
As mentioned by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, India and Africa share an “emotional link” based on our shared history of struggle against colonialism and our aspiration to bring prosperity to our people.
● Modest eco engagement
● Slow project delivery
● Lack of synchronisation
● Lack of resources
● Land grabbing
● Cumbersome bureaucracy
How is India's approach for Africa different from China?
● ‘Kampala Principles
● Developing together as equals
● Facilitates local participation
● Capacity building
● Fight against the COVID-19 pandemic
ASIA AFRICA GROWTH CORRIDORt
Better alternative to BRI-
Japan has agreed to fund in the tune of $200 billion for the growth corridor in Africa.
Asia Africa Growth Corridor (AAGC), an initiative announced in 2017, that is going to be jointly undertaken by India and Japan.
four core areas for this growth corridor
Development cooperation projects
quality infrastructure and institutional connectivity,
enhancing skills and capacity building
Africa Continental Free Trade Area-
This is a worrisome issue for India:
• Chinese economic engagement with Africa is not limited to resources. Although trade in resources such as crude oil and copper account for the bulk of trade between China and Africa, China has sanctioned
infrastructure for resource loans worth billions of dollars. Example: Nairobi Expressway.
• Demand for African exports was one of the most direct channels through which China penetrated Africa.
India prefers to focus on India’s long-term commitment to African development, development cooperation initiatives like Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) and Lines of Credit (LoCs) as well as the need for African votes for a permanent seat in the United Nations.
Indian ocean like Indian Ocean Naval symposium (IONS), SAGAR, Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA).
Security and Defence cooperation
They have moved joint proposals, such as the Agricultural Framework Proposal and Protection of Geographical Indications, at WTO and World Intellectual Property Organisation
Reform of global governance institutions-
Faith in Non-Alignment-
Operation Vanilla 2020- It was an Indian operation to provide HADR to Mozambique in the wake ofCyclone Diane INS Airavat (amphibious ship)
Operation Sahayata 2019- It was an Indian operation to provide Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) to Mozambique in 2019. Cyclone IDAI
INS Sujata, ICGS Sarathi and INS Shardul undertook HADR
Credit Facilities- India has sanctioned 182 LoC projects in Africa through the Export Import (EXIM) Bank of India, with a total credit commitment of about US$ 10.5 billion
Transfer of Technology-