INTEGRATIVE AND COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH - Coggle Diagram
INTEGRATIVE AND COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH
Language learning is learning to communicate using the target language.
Communicative activities are essential. Activities should be presented in a situation or context and have a communicative purpose.
The role of the teacher is that of a guide, a facilitator and instructor.
Evaluation concerns not only the learners' accuracy but also their fluency.
Trial and error is considered part of the learning process.
Emphasis on meaning and function rather than on language forms
Emphasis on communicative competence
Using English to learn it (strong version)
Learning to use English (weak version)
Avoid using the mother tongue
Strengths and Weaknesses
Much more student-oriented because it is based on students' needs and interests
Seeks to personalise and localise language and adapt it to interests of students. Meaningful language is always more easily retained by learners.
Seeks to authentic resources and that is more interesting and motivating for children.
Students acquire grammar rules as a necessity to speak so is more proficient and efficient.
Complicated to get people to complete. The response rate of postal questionnaires is particularly low.
Respondents often have limited choices of answers as they can only provide responses to a restricted range of questions or scales.
Examples of communicative tests
Task-based tests: four skills are tested comprehensively
Information gap: This involves two (or more) learners. Each testee has part of the information. They have to negotiate in order to get the missing information. A clear context must be specified for the test.
Letter writing: Learners may be asked to write, for example, a business letter to ask for information or to respond to a complaint by a customer
Note taking: Testees are involved in a listening activity in which they have to take notes and, for example, write a report
This approach can view students' proficiency with a global view
Dictation, another type using this approach, was regarded solely as a means of measuring student's skills of listening comprehension
Can measure the reader's ability to decode 'interrupted' and 'mutilated' messages by making the most acceptable situations from all the contextual clues available
Focuses on connections rather teaching isolated facts
Connect what is learned in school to real life situations
More on developing problem solving and discussions of issues in the real world
Involves consideration on the learners' individual differences which include multiple intelligences and learning styles
Involves the testing of language in context and is concerned primarily with meaning and the total communicative effect of discourse
Concerned with a global view of proficiency
Involves functional language but not the use of functional language
The use of close testing, dictation, oral interview, translation and essay writing are included in many integrative tests
Need to consider the importance of measuring skills based on a students' need such as writing only, speaking only etc
Examples of integrative test
Unified set of interacting abilities that cannot be tested separately
Essays and other coherent writing tasks
Oral interviews and conversation
Reading, or other extended samples of a real text