Chapter 6 Phonetics: The Sounds of Language. - Coggle Diagram
Chapter 6 Phonetics: The Sounds of Language.
The study of speech sounds.
It is divided into three branches: Acoustic phonetics, auditory phonetics, and Articulatory phonetics.
The pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism is produced when the air is pushed out. More specifically, most of the sounds are produced by pushing air out of the lungs through the vocal tract. Since the air comes from the lungs, it is pulmonic; and since it is pushed out, it is egressive.
The orthografy does not represent the sounds of the words in a language systematically
The IPA was created to develop a phonetic alphabet to symbolize the sounds of all languages.
Some restriction or closure in the vocal tract that impedes the flow of air from the lungs.
Place of articulation.
Where in the vocal tract the airflow restriction occurs.
Movement of the tongue and lips that cause the restriction, reshaping the oral cavity in various ways to produce the various consonants.
Bilabials [p] [b] [m]: bringing both lips together.
Labiodentals [f] [v]: touching the bottom lip to the upper teeth.
• Interdentals [ɵ] [ð]: the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower teeth.
Alveolars [t] [d] [n] [s] [z] [l] [r]: raising the front part of the tongue to the alveolar ridge.
Lateral [l]: the tip of tongue rises to the alveolar ridge leaving the rest of the tongue down
Retroflex [r]: curling the tip of the tongue back behind the alveolar ridge.
Palatals (alveopalatal) [ʃ]/[ŝ] [ʒ]/[ž] [č] [ĵ]: the front part of the tongue is raised to a point on the hard palate just behind the alveolar ridge.
Velars [k] [g] [ŋ]: raising the back of the tongue to the soft palate or velum.
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Manner of articulation.
The way the airstream is affected as it flows from the lungs up and out of the mouth and nose.
When the vocal cords are together, the airstream forces its way though and causes them to vibrate.
When the vocal cords are apart during airflow, the air flows freely through the glottis and supraglottal cavities.
When the velum is not in its raised position, air escapes through the nose and the mouth.
Are produced with the velum up, blocking the air from escaping through the nose, since the air can escape only through the oral cavity.
Sounds that are stopped completely in the oral cavity for a brief period are called stop (stops: [p] [b] [m] [t] [d] [n] [k] [g] [ŋ] [č] [ĵ] [ʔ])
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Sounds with an extra puff of air that escapes through the open glottis.
The vocal cords start vibrating as soon the lips open.
The configuration of the vocal tract during its production; for instance, different parts of the tongue may be high or low in the mouth; the lips may be spread or pursed; the velum may be raised or lowered.
A sequence of two sounds.
When a vowel differs as the whether the lips are rounded or spread.
Are produced with the lips pursed, or rounded, and the back of the tongue at decreasing heights.
Are produced without lip rounding or lips in the shape of a smile.
When the nasal passage is open, and the velum permits air to pass through it.
When the nasal passage is blocked, and the velum is raised preventing the air escaping through the nose.
Slightly longer in duration.
Shorter in duration.
The stops and nasal stops consonants in which there is a total obstruction of the airstream in the oral cavity.
All the vowels and the majority of consonants in which the stream of air flows continuously out of the mouth.
The airstream may be fully obstructed, as in nonnasal stops and affricatives, or partially obstructed, as in the production of fricatives.
Are produced with relatively free airflow through either the mouth or nose.
The nasals, liquids (sonorants) because they resonate and resemble the obstruents in that the oral cavity is constricted or even closed during their articulation.
Labials [p] [b] [m] [f] [v]
Those articulated with the involvement of the lips.
Coronals [ŝ] [ž] [č] [ĵ] [l]
Sounds articulated by raising the tongue blade.
Anterior [p] [b] [m] [f] [v] [t] [d] [n] [ɵ] [ð] [s] [z]
Produced in the front part of the mouth. From the alveolar area forward.
Sibilants [s] [z] [ŝ] [ž] [č] [ĵ]
The friction created in the production of fricatives and affricatives causes a hissing sound, which is a mixture of high-frequency sounds.
When in a word there is a syllable which has peaks of sonorants. Every vowel is at the center of a single syllable. Also liquids and nasal can be syllabic.
Depends on how fast the vocal cords vibrate.
Syllables that can be louder, slightly higher in pitch, or longer in duration.