CONSEQUENCES OF EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM - Coggle Diagram
CONSEQUENCES OF EUROPEAN IMPERIALISM
Intensifying rivalry among major powers of Europe.
: Reached the point of war over issues of mutual interests in
Was called the 'Great Game', and served to highlight Britain's concern to protect its possessions in India.
: Fashoda Crisis 1898.
A French expedition to Fashoda on the White Nile sought to gain control of the Upper Nile river basin and thereby excluse Britain from Sudan.
Britain held firm as both nations were on the edge of war.
Under heavy pressure, the French withdrew.
Secured Anglo-Egyptian control over the area.
The 2 states came to an agreement that Britain would have control over Egypt, whilst France became the dominant power in Morocco. They remained diplomatic as France realised they needed Britain in case of another Franco-Prussian war.
Russo- Japanese War
War was fought over their rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
Russia sought a warm-water port on the Pacific Ocean for its navy and for maritime trade.
The port of Vladivostok was operational only during the summer, whereas Port Arthur, a naval base in Liaodong Province leased to Russia by China was operational all year.
Japan offered to recognise Russian dominance in Manchuria in exchange for recognition of Korea as being within the Japanese sphere of influence.
The Japanese government perceived a Russian threat to its strategic interests and chose to go to war.
The heightened atmosphere of jingoism.
Following the Congress of Berlin in 1884, an atmosphere of heightened jingoism began.
The glorification of armed forces led to the general public of countries wanting war as it would show that they were the most powerful nation.
The denial of national self-determination to small powers by larger nations led to the rise of groups of nationalists eager to wage wars against their oppressors.
Exemplified in Morocco and SA where the Boer (farmers of Dutch descent) received German support in their rivalry against Britain. This made Britain suspicious of Germany's future intentions.
90% of all African land
was under European control.
A large part of the Sahara was in French hands.
After the quelling of the Mahdi rebellion in 1899 and the ending of the Fashoda crisis, Sudan remained firmly under joint British- Egyptian management.
Egypt became a protectorate in 1914.
Morocco was divided between the French and Spanish in 1911.
Libya was conquered by Italy in 1912.
The official British annexation of Egypt in 1914 ended the colonial division of Africa.
An extremely popular theory in the minds of many Europeans at the time.
It was used to justify the expansion of 'civilised and 'cultured' Europeans into regions seen as inhabited by primitive peoples.
Eg: - Britain feared imperial decline, which was impossible in terms of Social Darwinism, and therefore sought to gain new territory.
Eg: Austria-Hungary was fearful of losing its power to 'underdeveloped' Balkan peoples, especially in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Herzegovina.