Prep*sition - Coggle Diagram
Meaning and use
- :<3: vertical relations: above, after, below, down, on, on top of, over, under, underneath, up
- over and under 1) when one thing covers another. 2) when horizontal movement is suggested 3) with prices, ages, speeds, distances, quantities, where we mean more than or fewer, less than
- above or below 1) we usually use them 2) to talk about level or rank (t's possible to use after in this sense)
- up and down
- beneath - in idiomatic phrases
- :<3: horizontal relationships: against, along, alongside, around, at, beside, between, by, in, near, next to, on, on the left/ right of
- at 1) with the point in spase 2) with names of squares if we think of the sddress 3) refer to gathering of people
- on 1) a surface or a line 2) with streets, roads, avenues
- in 1) smth that surrounds 2) with countries, cities, towns 3) if we think of the square as 'surrounding' us.
- :<3: facing relations across, after, before, behind, facing, in front of, opposite, over
- in front of, behind 1) to describe the spatial relationship of two things, one after the other on a line and facing the same way. (they can be used in metaphorical, not literal, position.)
- before and after
- opposite/facing, across, over 1) meaning on the other side of
:warning: with across and over we have to state on the other side of what.
:warning: the difference btw opposite/facing and in front of is that the items on the 'line' are not facing in the same direction, as in the diagram above, but facing each other.
- vertical relations
- The clouds hung over the hills. He disappeared under the water.
Are we going to fly over the Alps?
The conference was very badly attended: under two hundert people came.
- The refuge is in the hills above the town.
The temperature was below freezing last night
- Is the position of Managing Editor above or below that of Editorial Director?
His opinion if second only after the Managing Director's.
- John lives a few houses further up/down the hill from us.
- Your behaviour towards my new husband was really beneath contempt!
- horizontal relationships
- at the bus stop, at 8 Baker Street, at the corner of the street (= a point) The group will meet at 7.30 at the sports centre. (either inside or outside)
- The film premiere this year will take place at Leicester Square in London.
- at a party, at a conference
- on the table, on the river, on Oxford Street
- in the wood. The group will meet at 7.30 in the sports certre. (inside)
- The film premiere this year will take place at Leicester Square in London.
- Warehouse was built beside/ alongside the motorway.
- facing relationship
Christopher is really behind his brother in terms of academic development.
Karen's nephew appears before/ in front of the magistrates this afternoon.
You'll be called first as my name is after yours on the list.
I'll meet you in the cafe opposite/ fasing the theatre.
I'll meet you in the cafe across/over the road from the theatre.
Movement and direction
- :<3: vertical movement: down (to), off, on, onto, over, up(to)
- down (to), off, on, onto, over, up(to) - for movemetn up or down
- get on, off a bus, plane, train, boat, bike
- get into, out a car
- over - for movement up and then down an obstacle
- :<3: passing movement: across, along,down, over, past, through, up
- along - for movement in a line
up, down - meaning ' along' with roads and rivers.
- across - for movement from one side to the other of smth on a 'surface'
- through - for movement inside smth
- over - incorporate the idea of above.
- past - for a movement from one side to the other of smth, next to it.
- :<3: movement in one direction - around at, away from, down, down to, from, into, onto, out of, to, towards, up, up to
- to + sertain verbs (throw, shout) - willing to do smth.
- at + sertain verbs (throw, shout) - unwilling to do smth.
- up to / towards - when we approach someone or smth,
- up to - reach the person, thing.
- up (to), down (to) - for movement north or south within a country.
- (a)round - a circular movement
we can use the prepositions of movement if a less literal way
- Keep to the right as you go down the stairs.
Look at Johnny's knee - he's just fallen off his bike.
Еhe burglar leapt over the garden fence as he ran away from us.
- We can spend a pleasant afternoon strolling along the canals.(along a river, road).
Go up the road to the corner, and the cinema.
You walk across the playing field to the wood then you go through the wood.s on the left.
Are we going to fly over the Alps on the way to Italy?
I was startled by a huge bird that flew past my window this afternoon.
- Can you throw that book to me, please? ( I'm willing)
Don't throw stones at the cat. ( the cat is unwilling)
The scientist moved quietly towards the group of grazing animals.
Do you think I can go up to him and ask for his autograph?
We've just come down to Canberra from Darwin.
We drove (a)round the roundabout three times.
A system of charges has been introduced into the Health Service.
- :<3: point in time - at, in, on
- at - 1) with times, 2) special periods (celebrations) 3) in some phrases
- in - 1) with parts of the day, 2) months 3) seasons, 4) years, 5) centries
- on - 1) days 2) dates (including special days)
:warning: we sometimes omit the preposition if we use about or around, to be less specific.
:warning: omit on before days (in US, informal Br)
:warning: we don't use prepositions (at, on, in) immediately before adverbs or adverbial phrases (today, tomorrow, last/this/ next week)
- :<3: before or after: after, before, by, past
- after, past - 'later than'
- before - 'before a time'
- by - " before oк at a time"
- in time - with time to spare
- on time - at the right time, often fixed.
- :<3: duration - as from/of, between, during, for, from .. till/untill/up to, in, inside, since, through(out), untill/till, up to, within.
- from... to (Br) / through (US) -to express the start and end points of a period of time
- at five to seven, at Christmas, at night, at the weekend (US on the weekent)
- in the evening, in December, in the winter, in 1999, in the twentieth centry
- on Thursday, on (the morning of) the 21st of October, on Christmas Day.
- Let's meet at the station (at) about six. We can supply the materials (on) around Thursday next week. Great news! The travel agent can get us on a flight that leaves Wednesday.
She new soap opera on BBC2 is starting tomorrow.
- There's no point in going to the party now, it's after/past eleven o'clock.
Applications must be submitted before 30th November. (on the 29th or earlier.
Applications must be submitted by 30th November. (on the 30th or earlier)
The wedding car arrived in time but the bride wasn't ready. (time to spare)
I want to arrive right on time at the church. (not early or late)
- I'll be staying at the Hilton from Friday to Monday.
I'll be staying at the Hilton Friday through Monday.
As of next Monday, we will have to suspend flexible working arrangements until further notice.
The long flowing style - of hair and clothes - was fashionable during/through(out) much of the seventies.
This volcano hasn't erupted since 1935.
The motorway widening was successfully completed within/in/inside four months.
- :<3: reason - because of, due to, for, from, out of, owing to, through
:<3: means - by, by means of, in, via, with
- by/with - to introduce an instrument
- by - for the agent (or originator) of smth
- by VS of
- in - when we refer to the means we use to achieve smth
- :<3: purpose - for, towards
- :<3: comparison - against, as, beside, between, contrary to, than, (un)like
- against, beside, contrary to - to make a contrast
- between - to differentiate (usually the difference between)
- like - to make a comparison
- as - to express a role
- :<3: inclusion and exclusion - among, as well as, besides, between, beyond, inside, insted of, out of, outside, under, within, witout.
- between - only two subjects
- among - more than two
- meaning of 'exclusion'
- :<3: exception - apart from, barring, but for, except (for), save
- except for - when the prepositional phrase contradicts the main idea of the sentence
- but = if not for
- :<3: contrast - despite, for alll, in spite of
- :<3: material - from, of, out of, with
- of - when the original material is still visible
- from - when the original material has been transformed
- with - refer to a filling or an ingredient.
- of - in metaphorical phrases
- :<3: benefit - for, for the sake of, on behalf of
- :<3: reporting - according to
- we don't use according to to report our own feelings or opinions.
- The 10. 00 service to Bath has been cancelled due to /owing to staff shortage.
Huge numbers of people in the Third World die from starvation every day.
Many parents sacrifice their own material wealth out of the desire to give their children everything.
The fire started through careless disposal of a cigarette end.
- Negotiations were held by phone between the client and his solicitor.
The victim was killed by a bullet to the head/with a sawn-off shotgun.
It's a painting by Van Gogh. He completed it during hus stay in Arles.
It's a painting of Van Gogh. It's actually not a very good likeness of him.
Complete the form in pencil. He prefers to paint in watercolour.
- I want an opener that can be used for opening bottles of beer as well as wine.
We're saving all of this extra income towards a round-the-world trip next year.
- Look at this year's sales figures against last year's; they're so much better.
Beside her sister, Laura was positively plain.
The Davis Cup final was won by the French team, contrary to expectations.
You won't be able to tell the difference between butter and this spread.
She behaves like a director, but she's really only a secretary.
Speaking as a director of the company, I believe we should sell the shares.
- For women, the distinction between work and leisure is less clear-cut.
The terminals are among the biaggest single development sites in Europe.
Are there any issues remaining besides that of the roof repairs?
I'm afraid that changes to the curriculum are beyond/outside/out of our control.
- Everyone is invited to the conference dinner, except (for)/ apart from/ save those who have bought 'day' tickets only.
Except and except for can both be used after phrases containing determiners such as all, every, no.
Julian did very well in all his exams except(for) geography.
Exept for one question on calculus, Julian got all the maths questions right.
Trulli emerged from the wreckage of the car uninjured except ofr a brocken trumb.
The house would have been destroyed but for the quick thinking of the firefighters.
- Despite/in spite of/ For all his grand ways, he was really no better off than the rest of us.
- a dress made of silk, a jacket made of leather, a table of the finest mahogany
ice cream made from strawberries.
toilet rolls made from recycled paper
vine leaves stuffed with rice
rice pudding made with cream
a man of iron, a heart of gold
- On behalf of our shareholders, I'd like to thank all of you hwho voted in favour of the merger.
I think we should move to the country for the sake of the children
- describes the relationship between two or more things.
- can link nouns, verbs, adjectives before preposition and a noun or pronoun after it
- prepositions can be one word only or more words
The hem of your dress is dragging along the floor.
He's really anxious about it.
of, because of
Preposition and adverbs
- a difference in use:
:pencil2: preposition has an object
:pencil2: adverb doesn't have an object.
:warning: we can modify prepositions with adverbs
- Did you ever travel before the war, Dad? (preposition)
I have a strange feeling that i've been here before. (adverb)
- The pub is almost at the end of the street, just before the traffic lights.
- preposition + the word(s) that follow it = a prepositional phrase
:pencil2: the most common words that follow prepositions are nouns and pronouns.
:pencil2: preposition + ing form, adverbs, wh-clauses
:pencil2: preposition + determiner + noun or ing form
:pencil2: preposition + that clause = NOT CORRECT
:pencil2: only with preposition(except: except, but, save) we can use Infinitive phrase
- sleep on the floor, comparisons between Clinton and Kennedy, it's for you.
- as well as helping us to move into the house, John bought us a great present.
Please don't interfere in any way with what I have written in the introduction.
The head teacher doesn't approve of his arrangements with a local band.
The govermnment managed to pass the bill through Parliament, despite its low majority//despite having a low majority/despite the fact that it had a low majority.
Please come straight home - don't stop except to phone us.
- a stranded preposition' is a preposition on its own at the end of a clause or sentence.
- English commonly use stranded preposition in
:pencil2: Relative clauses
:pencil2: The positive
:pencil2: Infinitive clauses
- preposition + object are used together (in formal language)
- preposition + that - NOT CORRECT
- Who are you coming to the party with?
I've been offered the job in London that I applied for.
What is your coat made from?
Than man is impossible to work with!
We have been unable to offer you the popsition for which you applied.