OB - CH10 - Organizational Culture - Coggle Diagram
OB - CH10 - Organizational Culture
Organizational culture, refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations.
Innovation and risk taking
, employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks
Attention to detail
, The degree to which employees are expected to work with precision, analysis, and attention to detail.
, the degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization
degree to which work activities are organizaed around teams rather than individuals.
, the degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing and supportive.
, degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining the status quo in contrast to growth.
four types based on the competing values frameowork
collaborative and cohesive
innovative and adaptable
controlled and consistent
competitive and costumer focused "
Levels of culture
are aspects of an organization's culture that you can see, hear, and feel.
the understandings of how objects and ideas relate to each other.
, stable and long lasting beliefs about what is important.
taken for granted notions of how something should be.
acts as a boundary-defining role, it creates a distinction between one organization and others
conveys a sense of identity to organization members
helps create commitment to something larger than an individual's self-interest
enhances stability, it is the social glue thatt helps hold the organization together by providing standards for what employees should say and do.
it serves as a control mechanism that guides and shapes the attitudes and behaviour of employees, and helps them make sense of the organization.
, shared perceptions organizational members have about their organization and work environment
psychological climate was strongly related to individual's level of job satisfaction involvement, commitment, and motivation.
dimensions of climate have been studied, innovation, creativity, communication, warmth, support, involvement, safety, justice, diversity, and customer service.
Climate also influences the habits people adopt.
The Ethical Dimension of Culture (ethical work climate)
the shared concept of right and wrong behaviour in the workplace that reflects the true values of the organization and shapes the ethical decision-making of its members.
Creating an Ethical Organizational Culture
be a visible role model
communicate ethical expectations
provide ethics training
visibly reward ethical acts and punish unethical ones
provide protective mechanisms
Ethical Climate Theory and Ethical Climate Index to categorize and measure the ethical dimensions of organizational cultures
, managers assume employees are motivated by self interest
, managers frame their decision making operating under the expectations that their decisions will positively affect the greatest number of stakeholders.
, rely on each individuals personal moral ideas to dictate his or her workplace behaviour
Law and code
, require managers and employees to use an external standardized moral compass such as a professional code of conduct or norms
, operate by internal standardized expectations from an organizational policy manual
ECI is measured by collecting collective levels of moral sensitivity, judgement, motivation, and character of our organizations, we might be able to judge the strength of the influence our ethical climates have on us.
Uniformity of culture
most large organizations have a dominant culture and numerous subcultures
dominant culture expreses the core values a majority of members share and that give an organization its distinct personality
subcultures tend to develop in large organizations to reflect common problems, situations, or experiences faced by groups of members in the same department or location
strong culture, a culture in which the core values are intensely held and widely shared. A Strong culture builds cohesiveness, loyalty, and organizational commitment.
weak culture if opinions vary widely.
, they circulate through many organizations, anchoring the present in the past and legitimating current practices.
repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization; what goals are most important; and which people are important and which are expendable.
, what conveys to employees who is important, the degree of egalitarianism top management desires, and the kids of behaviour that are appropriate.
many organizations and subunits within them use language to help members identify with the culture, show their acceptance of it and help preserve it, Baristas at Starbucks call drinks short, tall, grande, and venti.
How a Culture Begins
Free of previous ideologies, founders have a vision of what the organization should be, and the firm's small size makes it easy to impose that vision on all organizational members.
first, founders only hire and keep employees who think and feel the way they do
second, they indocrinate and socialize employees to their way of thinking and feeling.
finally, the founders behaviour encourages employees to identify with the founders and thereby internalize those beliefs, values, and assumptions.
when the organization succeeds, the founders, personality becomes embedded in the culture.
Keeping a Culture Alive
Once a culture is in place, practices within the organization maintain it by giving employees a set of similar experiences.
, it works to identify and hire individuals who have the knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform successfully, the final decision is significantly influenced by the decision maker's judgement of how well the candidates will fit into the organization, identifies people whose values are essentially consistent with at least a good portion of the organization's values.
, the actions of top management carry a major impact on the organization's culture. Through the words, behaviour, and actions, senior executives establish norms that filter through the organization about, whether risk taking is desirable; how much freedom managers give their employees; what is appropriate dress; and what actions will pay off in terms of pay raises, promotions, and other rewards.
, it helps adapting and the prevailing of the culture, socialization done will develop a new employee's self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilence. We can think of socialization as a process composed of three stages: prearrival, encounter, and metamorphosis.
, the period of learning in the socialization process that occurs before a new employee joins the organization (each individual arrives with a set of values, attitudes, and expectations about both the work and the organization)
The encounter stage
, the stage in the socialization process in which a new employee sees what the organization is really like and confronts the possibility that expectations and reality may diverge.
The metamorphosis stage,
the stage in the socialization process in which a new employee adjusts to the values and norms of the job, work group, and organization.
new employee has become confortable with the organization and his job
new employee has internalized the norms of the organization and the work group, and understands and accepts these norms
new employee feels accepted by his or her peers as a trusted and valued individual, is self-confident that he or she has the competence to complete the job successfully, and understands the system, not only his or her tasks but also the rules, procedures, and informally accepted practices
new employee understands how she will be evaluated and know what criteria will be used to measure and appraise his or her work, he or she constitutes a job "well done".
Liabilities of Organizational Culture
Barrier to change,
when the shared values do not agree with those that further the organization's effectiveness.
Barrier to diversity,
diverse behaviours and unique strengths are likely to diminish as people attempt to assimilate, strong cultures can become liabilities when they effectively eliminate these advantages.
Barrier to Mergers and Acquisitions,
all things being equal, whether the merger or acquisition actually works seems to have much to do with how well the two organizations cultures match up. "mergers have an unusually high failure rate, and it's always because of people issues".
, the entire new organization is determined to take on the culture of the merging organizations. works best when one of the organizations has a weak culture
, the organization remain separate and keep their individual cultures. This strategy works best when the organizations have little overlap in the industries in which they operate.
a new culture is formed by merging parts of each of the organizations. This strategy works best when aspects of each organization's culture needs to be improved.
When can Culture change?
A dramatic crisis,
a shock that undermines the status quo calls into question the relevance of the current culture.
Turnover in leadership,
new top leadership, which can provide an alternative set of key values, may be perceived as more capable of responding to the crisis
young and small organization,
the younger the organization the less entrenched its culture will be.
, the more widely held a culture is, and the higher the agreement among members on its values, the more difficult it is to change, weak cultures are more open to change than strong ones.
Creating a Positive Organizational Culture
emphasizes on building on employee strengths, rewards more often than it punishes, and emphasizes individual vitality and growth.
Build on employee strengths,
positive organizational culture does not ignore problems, it emphasizes showing employees how they can capitalize on their strengths.
Rewarding more often than punishing
, most organizations are sufficiently focused on extrinsic rewards such as pay and promotions, they often forget about the power of smaller (and cheaper) rewards like praise.
catching employees employees doing something right.
Emphasizing Vitality and Growth
, No organization will get the best out of employees who see themselves as cogs in the machine. A positive culture realizes the difference between a job and a career, it supports not only what the employee contributes to organizational effectiveness, but also how the organization can make the employee more effective personally and professionally.
Limits of Positive Culture?
its a new area, there's still uncertainty about how and when it works best. Not all national cultures value being positive.