OB - CH9 - Conflict and Negotiation - Coggle Diagram
OB - CH9 - Conflict and Negotiation
, is the process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected or is about to negative affect something that the first party cares about
, support the goals of the group and improve its performance
hinder group performance is normally destructive.
Types of conflict
, related to the content and goals of the work
positively associated with better performance when it happens in top management
, related to interpersonal conflicts
Is almost always dysfunctional
, related to how the work gets done
Where conflict occurs the Loci of Conflict
, occurs between two people
, happens within a group
occurs between groups
Sources of conflict
, the following conditions can give rise to conflict, they need not lead directly to conflict, but at least one of these conditions is necessary if conflict is to surface
, differing word connotations, jargon, insufficient exchange of information, and noise are all barriers and can be a potential precedent for conflict to arise. Both undercommunication and overcommunication can lead to conflict
Size, specialization and composition,
the larger the group, the more specialized its activities, the greater the likelihood of conflict, this adds up if the group's age is low and turnover is high
the greater the ambiguity
, in defining responsibility for actions, the greater the conflict too.
, when one member's gain is another's expense.
, if employees do not carry enough discretion of the work they do and the managers tightly control and oversee the work
diversity of goals
, among groups is also conflicting, when the org seeks diverse ends
when theres dependency
from one group to another, if theres interdependence from one group to gain at another's expense, opposing forces are stimulated
personality, emotions, values, when values or personalities are at odds, conflict arises.
, 20 percent's of managers time is spent managing conflict
win win, both can earn something out of the conflict
zero sum, win lose
Strategies based on dual concern theory,
, imposing one's will on the other party without concern for other's interests
make threats or bluffs
make persuasive arguments
make positional commitments
, clarifying differences to find mutually beneficial outcomes
exchange info about priorities and preferences
make trade-offs between important and unimportant issues
, giving up something to reach an outcome, (done by both parties)
match other's concessions
make conditional promises and threats
search for a middle groud
, placing the other's interests above one's own
make unilateral concessions
make unconditional promises
, withdrawing from or ignoring conflict
dont think about the issues
How can individuals manage conflict?
, meeting face to face to identify and resolve the issue through open discussion
developing overarching goals
, creating a shared goal that requires both parties to work together
, playing fown differences while emphasizing common interests with the other party
, agreeing with the other party that each will give up something of value to reach an accord.
, suppressing the conflict
When it is work related the following are important techniques
Expansion of resources
, when theres scarcity an expansion of resources can create win win solutions
, use formal authority to resolve conflict and communicate its desires to the parties involved
altering the human variable
, behavioural change techniques such as human relations can alter attitudes and behaviours that cause conflicts
altering the structural variable
, by using job redesign, transfers and creation of coordinating positions, the formal org structure can change and fix any conflicts
resolving personality conflicts
misunderstandings based on age, race or cultural differences
intolerance, prejudice, discrimination, or bigotry
misunderstanding, rumors, or falsehoods about an individual or group
blaming for mistakes or mishaps.(fingerpointing)
Resolving intercultural conflicts
greater contact with other cultures can lead to greater understanding, but can also lead to misunderstanding when individuals ignore the different perspectives that might result from cultural differences.
North Americans prefer problem-solving approaches, that are open because it presents win win situations
east asian managers tend to ignore conflict rather than make it public to save face, they value harmony
westerners are more likely to choose forcing as a strategy than are Asians
Conflict resolution and culture
, there are differences across countries in conflict resolution strategies that might be based on collectivistic tendencies and motives.
Negotiation style and cultural differences, these are affected too, people generally negotiate more effectively within cultures than between them.
culture, negotiations and emotions, east asian might respond less favourably to an angry negotiator. while the US responds more cooperative when the other party is angry.
, equitable and fair agreements are the best outcome,
when conflict is resolved positively, it can lead to better releationships and greater trust
handling conflict successfully teaches one how to do it better next time.
the process in which two or more parties try to agree on the exchange rate for goods or services they are trading.
, negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win lose solution.
, set amount of goods or services to be divided up, when they believe the pie is fixed, even if its not true, they tend to bargain distributively.
take the lead when possible and make an aggressive initial offer, that is reasonable.
revealing a deadline, deadlines speed concessions from their negotiating counterparts.
assumes one or more settlements exist that can create a win-win solution.
team negotiation reaches more integrative bargaining outcomes.
the more issues are on the table the higher the likelihood of having integrative bargaining ideas too.
concentrate in the underlying interests of both, instead of the issues themselves.
compromising is the worst enemy in negotiating a win win situation, if your opponent caves easily, no one needs to be creative to reach a settlement.
Individuals within bargaining have
, items that are specifically placed on the bargaining table
, the individual's stance for their position
underlying concerns that are affected by the negotiation resolution
How to negotiate
Develop a strategy
research what is the nature of the conflict
what's the history leading up t this negotiation
who's involved, what are their perceptions of the conflict
what are the goals
develop outcomes from the most hopeful to minimally acceptable
assess the other parties goals, interests, etc.
target and resistance levels, and their best BATNA Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement
defining ground rules
who will be negotiating
where would it take place?
what are the time contraints?
will there be procedure to ammend an impass?
Bargaining and Problem Solving
a combination of competing and collaborating, (forcing and problem solving) as part of their strategy to gain a higher starting salary were more successful than those who used compromising and accommodating strategies.
using an open discussion of one's positions, issues, and perspectives, further increased their effectiveness.
Achieving closure and implementation
formalizing the agreement and developing procedures necessary for implementing and monitoring it.
Individual differences in negotiation Effectiveness
Personality Traits in negotiation
the best negotiator is a competitive but empathetic one, the worst is a gentle but empathetic one.
extroverted negotiators tend to give away more information, and lose one's position.
Moods / Emotions in Negotiation
negative emotions impact negotiation, the more anxiety the worst off, the more angry whether deep faked or real, the more the other party feels compelled to fold.
positive emotions increase our tendency to see potential relationships among elements of a problem.
Gender differences in negotiation
men are typically more assertive than women, but that's a stereotype that influences the whole negotiation.
if economic outcomes are valued, then women should act aggressively and in a self-intereted manner.
women tend to be more assertive when they negotiate on the behalf of someone else.
Third party Negotiations
, a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, suggesting alternatives, etc.
, a third party with the authority to dictate an agreement, it can be either voluntary or compulsory
, is a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent, it is normally used in international, labour, family, community disputes.