managing blood sugar levels - Coggle Diagram
managing blood sugar levels
The two main kinds of carbohydrates — simple and complex — affect blood sugar levels differently.
Simple carbohydrates are mainly made up of one kind of sugar. They are found in foods, such as white bread, pasta, and candy. The body breaks these carbohydrates down into sugar very quickly, which causes blood sugar levels to rise rapidly.
Complex carbohydrates are made up of three or more sugars that are linked together.
Because the chemical makeup of these kinds of carbohydrates is complicated,
it takes the body longer to break them down.
As a result, sugar is released into the body more gradually,
meaning that blood sugar levels do not rapidly rise after eating them.
Examples of complex carbohydrates include whole grain oats and sweet potatoes.
Signs and symptoms of Hypoglycemia
Inability to concentrate
Irritability or moodiness
Anxiety or nervousness
Intervention of Hypoglycemia
Eat or drink 15 to 20 grams of fast-acting carbohydrates.
These are sugary foods without protein or fat that are easily converted to sugar in the body.
Try glucose tablets or gel, fruit juice, regular — not diet — soft drinks, honey, and sugary candy.
Recheck blood sugar levels 15 minutes after treatment.
If blood sugar levels are still under 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L),
eat or drink another 15 to 20 grams of fast-acting carbohydrate, and recheck the blood sugar level again in 15 minutes.
Repeat these steps until the blood sugar is above 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L).
Have a snack or meal. Once your blood sugar is normal, eating a snack
or meal can help stabilize it and replenish your body's glycogen stores.
Medications. If a medication is the cause of your hypoglycemia, your doctor will likely suggest changing or stopping the medication or adjusting the dosage.
Tumor treatment. A tumor in your pancreas is treated by surgical removal of the tumor. In some cases, partial removal of the pancreas is necessary.
Monitor your blood sugar. Depending on your treatment plan,
you may check and record your blood sugar level several times a week or multiple times a day.
Careful monitoring is the only way to make sure that your blood sugar level remains within your target range.
Don't skip or delay meals or snacks. If you take insulin or oral diabetes medication,
be consistent about the amount you eat and the timing of your meals and snacks.
Measure medication carefully, and take it on time.
Take your medication as recommended by your doctor.
Adjust your medication or eat additional snacks if you increase your physical activity.
The adjustment depends on the blood sugar test results,
the type and length of the activity, and what medications you take.
Eat a meal or snack with alcohol, if you choose to drink.
Drinking alcohol on an empty stomach can cause hypoglycemia.
Alcohol may also cause delayed hypoglycemia hours later,
making blood sugar monitoring even more important.
Record your low glucose reactions. This can help you and your health care team identify
patterns contributing to hypoglycemia and find ways to prevent them.
Carry some form of diabetes identification so that in an emergency others will know that you have diabetes. Use a medical identification necklace or bracelet and wallet card.
Signs and Symptoms of hyperglycemia
Later signs and symptoms
Nausea and vomiting
Shortness of breath
Follow your diabetes meal plan. If you take insulin or oral diabetes medication, it's important that you
be consistent about the amount and timing of your meals and snacks.
The food you eat must be in balance with the insulin working in your body.
Monitor your blood sugar. Depending on your treatment plan, you may check and record your blood sugar level several times a week or several times a day. Careful monitoring is the only way to make sure that your blood sugar level remains within your target range. Note when your glucose readings are above or below your goal range.
Take your medication as prescribed by your doctor.
Adjust your medication if you change your physical activity.
The adjustment depends on the blood sugar
test results and on the type and length of the activity.
Raw, Cooked, or Roasted Vegetables
Flavorful, Low-calorie Drinks
Melon or Berries
Whole-grain, Higher-fiber Foods
A Little Fat
Exercise: Physical activity can use excess glucose in the blood. However, if a person with severe hyperglycemia finds ketones in their urine, they should avoid exercise, as this breaks down more fats and might speed up ketoacidosis.
Moderating the diet: Eating less during mealtimes and snacking less, as well as focusing on low-sugar foods, helps keep the amount of glucose at a level that the body can handle. A dietitian can help a person adapt their diet in gradual and healthful ways.
Metformin. In most of the world, metformin is the only biguanide available. ...
Sulfonylureas. Sulfonylureas lower glycemia by enhancing insulin secretion. ...
α-Glucosidase inhibitors. ...
Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists (exenatide). ...
Amylin agonists (pramlintide).
Include the patient in creating the teaching plan, beginning with establishing objectives and goals for learning at the beginning of the session.
Consider what is important to the patient.
Involve patient in writing specific outcomes for the teaching session, such as identifying what is most important to learn from their viewpoint and lifestyle.
Explore reactions and feelings about changes.
Give adequate time for integration that is in direct conflict with existing values or beliefs.
Provide clear, thorough, and understandable explanations and demonstrations.
Give information with the use of media. Use visual aids like diagrams, pictures, videotapes, audiotapes, and interactive Internet websites,
Provide preadmission self-instruction materials to prepare patient for postoperative exercises.
When teaching, build on patient’s literacy skills.
incorporate rewards into learning process.