ENCYCLOPEDIA of FOODS - Coggle Diagram
Chapter 1 Optimizing Health
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs):
a set of recommendations for nutrient intake.
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
is the amount of each nutrient that is
sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiencies
in practically all healthy people.
The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
is the amount of a nutrient that is estimated to
meet the requirement
of half the population of an age- and sex-specific group
Adequate Intake (AI)
is the intake that should be adequate to
meet the needs of most people
For some nutrients, too little is known about them to establish an RDA. For these, AI is determined.
Upper Limit (UL)
maximal daily intake
of a nutrient that is likely to be free of the risk of adverse health effects in almost all individuals in the designated group.
How are the DRIs used?
Food Guide Pyramid
the Daily Values
, the information on
that helps you determine how a food contributes to your total nutrient intake
see the Appendix: Dietary Reference Intakes, page 421
THE DIETARY GUIDELINES
Aim for Fitness
Aim for a healthful weight
a healthful eating plan
regular physical activity
are at a healthy weight
maintain that weight
Be physically active each day
Moderate physical activity:
using the elevator less and using the stairs more, parking farther from rather than closer to your destination, gardening, brisk walking
at least twice a week
Build a Healthy Base
Let the Pyramid guide your food choices
Your body needs more than
and other substances for good health
No one food
can give you all the
your body needs
eating a wide
variety of foods
(See page 11 for more information on the Food Guide Pyramid.)
the Pyramid is on increasing the proportion of fruits, vegetables, and grains
decreasing the proportion of higher-fat foods
The grain group, which includes bread, cereal, rice, and pasta
grain foods should be those made from whole grains, for the most nutritional value.
Because of the
they contain, meats, poultry, and seafood (the high-protein foods) and dairy products (high in protein, calcium, and other minerals) should make a smaller contribution to our daily fare.
choose a variety of foods and the fact that there are no “bad” foods.
The number of servings that you should choose from each food group
depends on your calorie needs
, which in turn depend on your
age, size, sex, and activity level
1,600 calories. This calorie level meets the needs of most sedentary women and some older adults.
2,800 calories, is recommended for physically active men, teen boys, and some very active women.
2,200 calories, sufficient for children, teen girls, active women, and most men
Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains
Choosing a diet rich in grains
vitamins, minerals, and fiber, as well as phytochemicals -
important plant substances that may be beneficial to health
a wide variety of these foods
as your source of nutrients
(more if you are very active)
several servings of whole-grain foods.
Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily
in calories and provide
2 servings of fruit
See Chapters 4 and 5, pages 79 through 149, for ideas on how to include these impor- tant foods as regular features in your meals. Part II, page 150, also describes the bounty from which to choose
Keep foods safe to eat
before and during the handling of food.
Take care to
raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods at all times.
Refrigerate perish- able foods and leftovers promptly
when in doubt, throw it out
For further discussion on food safety issues, see Chapter 5, page 148.
Choose a diet that is
low in saturated fat and choles- terol
moderate in total fat
fat in your diet,
especially saturated fat
, increases your risk of several diseases, including heart disease.
learn to identify the sources of fats, saturated fats, and cho- lesterol, and make healthful food choices.
See Chapter 2, Fats, page 26, and Chapter 3, Coronary Artery Disease, page 61
moderate your intake of sugars
Some foods that contain
(such as fruits, vegetables, and milk products) also
contain essential nutrients
such as table sugar, sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages, candy, and some baked goods,
supply calories but few other nutrients
When consuming sugar, moderation is key.
See Chapter 2, Carbohydrates, page 18
foods with less salt
Reducing sodium intake lowers high blood pressure in some individuals.
See Chapter 3, High Blood Pressure, page 53.
Moderation in sodium intake
Sodium, a nutrient, is a major part of table salt (sodium chlo- ride). It is found naturally in many foods in small amounts. Salt and sodium compounds are also added to processed foods, and salt may be used in cooking or added at the table.
drink alcoholic beverages in moderation
Alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, and hard liquor) are a source of
When consumed in
, alcohol can
result in dependency
, and lead to several serious
a moderate intake of alcohol is associated with a lower risk of disease of the heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular disease) in some individuals
(See sidebar: Alcohol and Health, page 387.)
Chapter2 The Nutrients and Other Food Substances
In this chapter, we focus on the nutrients themselves—
how they are digested, what happens to them in the body, and what they do for you.
Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats contained in foods are known as the macronutrients
-> provide energy in the form of calories
Vitamins and minerals are
known as the micronutrients.
Although the micronutrients help your body use the energy in macronutrients, they provide no energy (calories)themselves.
Water is also an essential, calorie- free nutrient.
substances in foods of plant origin
CARBOHYDRATES, PROTEINS, AND FATS
(like the sugar you add to your morning coffee)
to satisfy the energy needs of the brain
our muscles use glucose for short-term bouts of activity.
such as starches
(contained in pasta, bread, cereal, and in some fruits and vegetables)
to deliver calories for energy
provide about 4 calories per gram
The liver and muscles also convert small amounts of the sugar and starch that we eat into a storage form called glycogen. After a long workout, muscle glycogen stores must be replenished.
In contrast to the other carbohydrates, fiber (a substance contained in bran, fruits, vegetables, and legumes) is a type of complex carbohydrate that cannot be readily digested by our bodies. Even though it isn’t digested, fiber is essential to our health. Nutrition professionals recommend 25 to 30 grams of fiber daily.
sugar that naturally gives some fruits their sweet flavor.
choosing fresh fruits, which are naturally sweetened with their own fructose, or low-fat yogurt, which contains lactose (natural milk sugar),
allows us to get the vitamins and minerals contained in those foods as well as other food components that contribute to health but may not have yet been identified
Table sugar, the sugar that we spoon onto our cereal and add to the cookies we bake,
adds nutritive value (in the form of calories only), flavor, texture, and structure, while helping to retain moisture
The inability to digest lactose to its constituent sugars is the cause of lactose intolerance
sugar that gives milk its slightly sweet taste
Foods that are high in added sugar are often low in essen- tial nutrients such as vitamins and minerals.
how they are digested
digested first into small “peptides.”
Some of these peptides are further digested into their constituent amino acids.
Only amino acids and small peptides are actually absorbed by the small intestine into the blood- stream
delivered to the liver, muscles, brain, and other organs
what they do for you
the main structural elements of our skin, hair, nails, cell membranes, muscles, and connective tissue.
Our muscles (65 percent of the body’s total protein) give our bodies their shape and strength.
enable our skeletons to function
form internal organs
hold the organs in place
Proteins in the blood carry oxygen to all cells and remove carbon dioxide and other waste products.
The proteins in muscle, connective tissue, and blood make up most of the protein in the body.
accelerate metabolic processes
the best food sources
lean meats and poultry, fish, low-fat dairy products, and eggs
beans, corn, rice, and other cereal grains
Whole-grain foods and legumes
vitamins, minerals, fiber, and other substances that optimize health.
soybeans contain the most complete protein.
What if we eat too little protein?
the loss of large amounts of muscle protein can be fatal.
What if we eat more protein than we need
excess protein is converted to fat.
Tác dụng đối với sức khoẻ
to build cell membranes
to make several indispensable hormones,
namely, the steroid hormones testosterone, progesterone, and estrogen, and the hormone-like prostaglandins.
Dietary fats also permit one group of vitamins, the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K), to be absorbed from foods during the process of digestion.
help these vitamins to be transported through the blood to their destinations.
a source of energy (calories)
What if we eat more fats than we need
increase the risk of gaining excessive amounts of weight and of developing diabetes, coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and several types of cancer.
Type of fats
Monounsaturated fatty acids
canola, nut, and olive oils
(liquid at room temperature.)
the primary source of fat as monounsaturated fat (frequently in the form of olive oil) + only small amounts of animal products has been linked to
a lower risk of coronary artery disease.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Safflower, sun- flower, sesame, corn, and soybean oil
(liquid at room temperature.)
The essential fatty acids:
linoleic and linolenic acid
lower blood choles- terol levels
an acceptable substitute for saturated fats in the diet.
Omega-3 fatty acids
fish (tuna, mackerel, and salmon)
some plant oils such as canola (rapeseed) oil
Sức khoẻ: lower risk for coronary artery disease, fight infection.
Saturated fatty acids
Food sources: meat, poultry, dairy products, and eggs, coconut, palm, palm kernel oil
Lượng nên ăn: less than 10 percent of your calories
Sức khoẻ (gây hại):
Food sources: stick margarine, fast foods, commercial baked goods (donuts, cookies, crackers), processed foods, and fried foods.
Sức khoẻ (gây hại): dangerous for the heart and may pose a risk of developping certain cancers.
Sức khoẻ (gây hại): associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease.
Food sources: stick and tub margarine, commercial baked goods, snack foods, and other processed foods.
Sức khoẻ: is a necessary constituent of cell membranes and serves as a precursor for bile acids (essential for digestion), vitamin D, and an important group of hormones (the steroid hormones).
Our livers can make virtually all of the cholesterol needed for these essential functions.
Food sources: meat, poultry, milk, butter, cheese, and eggs.
daily cholesterol intake is
300 mg or less.
the average large egg contains about 210 milligrams of cholesterol (only in the yolk)
no more than 30 percent
of our calories from fat—with
no more than 10 percent
from saturated fat
Men, active women, teen girls & children
< 24g saturated fat
Active men & teen boys
< 31g saturated fat
Most women & older adults
< 17g saturated fat
Nên giảm ăn chất béo bằng cách
increasing our intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole- grain foods, which are naturally low in fat, and prepar- ing them with a minimum of added fats
consuming low-fat dairy products such as nonfat milk and yogurt and reduced-fat cheeses
imiting our intake of red meat, poultry, and fish to 5 to 7 ounces daily
choosing lean cuts of red meat and poultry, removing the skin before eating poultry, and preparing the meat with a method that uses little or no additional fats
choosing some fish that is high in omega-3 fatty acids and preparing it with little or no added fat
Calories are used to support all muscular activity, to carry out the metabolic reactions that sustain the body, to maintain body temperature, and to support growth
Weight is maintained when energy (calorie) intake balances energy output -
see Chapter 3, page 48
VITAMINS AND MINERALS
Chapter3 The Food-Health Connection