Historically Black College - Coggle Diagram
Historically Black College
The Federal Higher Education Act of 1965
Upon amending, this defined an "historically" black insitution of higher education as "any historically Black college or University that was established prior to 1964.
was, and is, the education of black Americans
Commonly preferred to as HBCUs
Most private black colleges originated in the nineteen southern and border states after the Civil War during and after Reconstruction in the years 1867 through 1890
Historically Black Colleges and Universities were started by White Northern missionaries and White and Black church
Today there are about 103 HBCUs, slightly more than half private, the rest public, and their are a few that are two-year institutions.
As of today 14% of Black college students
attend HBCUs, 70% of all Black doctors and dentists, 50% of all Black engineers and public school teachers, and 35% of all Black attorneys have received their Bachelor’s degrees from an HBCU.
On May 24, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court announced its decision in the school desegregation case Brown v. Board of Education
The Brown decision was hailed by most Blacks and Whites who opposed what were called “The Jim Crow Laws".
HBCU presidents and others with connections to these Southern and border state institutions were concerned that the Court’s decision to desegregate all elementary and secondary schools could also be used to integrate and/or eliminate HBCU's.
There was some fear that the Court ruling would extend the rejection of the “separate but equal” doctrine to all public colleges and universities in the South and that many Black students at public along with private HBCUs would choose or transfer to predominantly White public universities (PWIs) because of their superior facilities, program offerings, and comparable tuition costs.
The United Negro College Fund (UNCF), an association of most of the private HBCUs, anticipated the Court’s decision and was ready to challenge any attempt to shut down HBCUs
Black Higher Education enrollments significantly increased when Black war veterans took advantage of the G.I. Bill and others joined the second Black migration from the South to Northern cities for better paying jobs and escape from Southern-style racism.
Outside the South public PWIs were integrated and welcoming qualified Black students before affirmative action began to take root.
Although, Black enrollments in higher education grew, the percentage of Blacks at HBCUs dropped dramatically.
HBCU experiencess contribute immensely to the pursuit of educational, professional, and personal goals in Black attendees.
To understand the importance of HBCUs within the Black community their must first be a critical look into the post-Civil War America era.
Prior to the Civil War, few universities embraced the mission and goal of training and educating Black people
When the Civil War became about in 1861 at least 90% of all African Americans were illiterate, and only 28% had received college-or-university-level training from any American Institution
Due to this the formal college education for
most Blacks included learning basic reading and math skills
Additionally, to offering basic educational skillls, earlyier HBCUs functioned as sites of resistance, empowerment, and social uplift.
Historically, early financial support for HBCUs typically came from Black and White churches and religiously affiliated organizations (Rovaris 2005)
This post-war phenomenon arose from various religious leaders’ desire to train and to teach men and women who would ultimately take responsibility for spreading the message of the gospel.
White missionaries believed that their efforts to educate Blacks would create a class of morally upright citizens who knew how to live among White society.
Diversity is not paramount for some
PWIs, particularly in regards to hiring minority faculty.
The first HBCUs were established in the late 1800s by ex-slaves (and others) in Black churches, or they were affiliated with Christian denominations.
They were built because the promise of true freedom at the end of the American Civil War was never fulfilled.
During more than two centuries of slavery, African Americans weregenerally denied any form of education
Following the Stono Rebellioni n 1739 in South Carolina, many states adopted laws that made it illegal to teach a slave to write, and the laws were strengthened after Nat Turners Revolt.