Atoms, Elements and Compounds - Coggle Diagram
Atoms, Elements and Compounds
Mass: 0 (or 0.0005)
If the electrons are the same as the protons then the element is balanced.
Proton number never changes
Atomic number is number of protons in the nucleus.
Mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Periodic table increases by atomic number.
Isotopes are atoms of the same element which have the same proton number but a different number of electrons. Can be radioactive and non-radioactive
Iridium-192 is used to diagnose fractures using X-rays
Californium-252 is used to detect explosives in airline luggage.
An atom with a charge
A cation is a positive ion and an anion has a negative charge
Atoms lose and gain electrons until they have full outer shells
Alloys: a mixture of a metal with other elements (e.g. brass)
Metals vs Non-metals: Metals are hard, malleable, ductile, sonorous, have high melting and boiling points, shiny, conductor, solid (except mercury) and silvery (except gold and copper.
Elements vs Mixtures vs Compounds:
elements are composed of only one type of atom while compounds are composed of at least two types of atoms and mixtures are composed of at least two different types of compounds
Ionic vs Covalent Compounds:
Ionic - between metal and non-metals
Covalent - between metals
Graphite: Soft and has only 3 covalent bonds and delocalized electrons. Weak intermolecular bonds between layers and conductor (cause delocalized electrons can 'flow' which is what electricity needs). High melting point and not as dense as diamond.
Diamond: Hard and has 4 covalent bonds (no delocalized electrons). It has strong covalent bonds and is a non-conductor with a high melting point. Is dense (less space between atoms).
Metallic Bonding: electrostatic attraction between metal ions and delocalized electrons