How can the spread of infectious diseases be controlled? - Coggle Diagram
How can the spread of infectious diseases be controlled?
Monitoring and control
There are three levels of monitoring and control: local, regional and global.
Factors affecting disease outbreaks
DAWR had many roles in keeping infectious disease out of Australia
Surveillance and diagnostics
- (understand and quantify the impact of pests and diseases)
Treatment and Recovery
- (demonstrate the absence of pests and diseases)
Communication, community attitudes and awareness
- (socioeconomic drivers of adopting best practice)
- (manage the pests and diseases that are already in Australia)
Risk and decision tools
- (improved decision-making tools and risk analyse)
Data and intelligence
- (prevent exotic pests and diseases from entering and establishing in Australia)
Personal and community hyigene
Sewage and garbage disposal
Sterilisation of medical equipment
City planning to avoid overcrowding
Use a tissue to cough or sneeze
Body, hair and teeth cleaning
Public Health Campaigns
The role of public health campaigns are to coordinate, inform and education to form a resolution on controlling the spread of infectious diseases.
examples include: measles control campaign and the meningococcal C campaign
Antibiotics (target bacteria) - example: penicillins, tetracyclines, polymixins, sulfamides, cephalosporins.
Antivirals/antiretroviral (targets viruses) - examples: tamiflu used to treat influenza and abacavir used to treat and maintain HIV/AIDS
Antifungals (targets fungi) - example: fluconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin.
Antiprotozoals (targets protozoa) - example: doxycycline, metronidazole, mefloquine.
Control of an epidemic (e.g. ebola)
- who is ivolved and how will it be funded
Environmental and engineering protocols
- Barrier nursing/hygiene
- Infected people and contaminated objects do not leave the site (short and long term)
Incidence and Prevalence
- the incidence of an infection disease is the number of new cases occurring during a specified time. To calculate the incidence of a disease can as a percentage use the following formula: number of new case during a specified time divided by the population at start of monitoring period times 100.
- The prevalence of a disease is the proportion of the population that have the disease at a particular point in time. all new and previous cases during a time period divided by the population during the time period times 100.
- garlic and onions
- mosquito nets
- alkaloids in mortion bay chestnut
Antibiotic and antiviral
can be effective however pathogens are able to build resistance to the drug therefore becoming ineffective.
Tea tree oil
The tree is endemic to Australia. Indigenous Australians use various parts of the tree to create a paste that contains the oil. It is used as an antiseptic to treat wounds and infections.
There are over 700 eucalyptus species across Australia. Indigenous Austrlians have long used the oils for their natural antimicrobial and antiseptic properties.
Smoke bush in WA
Located in South Western Australia, between Geraldton and Esperance. Aboriginal people used it for thousands of years for its natural healing properties. Researchers have long been interested in the plant as a potential source of treatment for various diseases, including cancer and HIV.
: Specifically provide individuals with artificial active immunity. (Immunity against a specific pathogen which causes a specific disease). vaccinating enough people would create herd immunity, which is if a significant proportion of the population is immune to a disease, then any susceptible individuals are prevented from coming into contact with the pathogen.
Passive Immunity: When antibodies are transferred to an unimmunised person, providing them temporary protection against a microbial agent or toxin. (The body become immune after GIVEN antibodies)
occurs when your immune system is stimulated by an antigen to make its own T cells, B cells and antibodies. (Body makes its own B cells, T cells and antibodies.
: Substances which control pests. Killing the pathogenic organism responsible for the disease. Eradicating vectors of the disease (e.g. mosquitos and midges). DDT is an insecticide used against mosquitos.
: used to modify the genetic structure of an organism using biotechnology.
Mosquito borne disease include malaria and dengue fever that are most prominent in South East Asia.