RTI (Part 1): An Overview, All my information was obtained from: The IRIS…
RTI (Part 1): An Overview
The IQ-achievement discrepancy model is the traditional method used to determine whether a student has a learning disability and needs special education services.
Concerns about the IQ-achievement discrepancy model:
Assessments do not always discriminate between disabilities and the results of inadequate teaching.
Students can be misidentified due to teacher or testing bias.
Typically, students must first fail in order to qualify for special education services.
Results from assessments do not inform the instructional process.
Many students do not meet the discrepancy criteria but would nevertheless benefit from early identification and support to remediate their skills.
Approximately 40% of students across the nation cannot read at a basic level.
Almost half the students living in urban areas cannot read at a basic level.
Almost 70% of low-income fourth-grade students cannot read at a basic level.
The basic components to all RTI approaches are:
Tier 1: Class or school wide interventions
Tier 2: Targeted interventions
Tier 3: Intensive, individualized interventions/ disability classification/ special education placement
Two major benefits of RTI
providing assistance to students early, when they begin to struggle
RTI and early intervening:
Ensure that all students receive high-quality instruction in the general education classroom
Promote immediate intervention as soon as students’ reading problems are revealed
Prevent substantial reading difficulties from developing
Reduce inappropriate referrals and placements in special education for students with learning disabilities
Identification of learning disabilities
The RTI approach has many benefits, particularly when applied to the identification of students with reading or learning disabilities. Some of those advantages include:
Ensuring that struggling readers have received high-quality instruction before referrals to special education are made
Using classroom data, rather than subjective observations, to make decisions about whether students should be referred for an evaluation for special education services
Delivering services as soon as students begin to struggle
Standard Protocol Approach to RTI
This option uses one validated intervention, selected by the school, to improve the academic skills of its struggling students.
The RTI approach can be implemented in a variety of ways. In broad terms, RTI is a multi-level approach that is made of the following components.
Universal screening: All students are given a screening measure. Students at risk for academic failure are identified.
Tier 1: Students receive effective, research-validated instruction in the general education setting. Student progress is monitored on a weekly basis. (In some approaches, universal screening is considered part of Tier 1.)
Tier 2: Students whose progress is less than desired receive different or additional support from the classroom teacher or another educational professional. Student progress continues to be monitored.
Tier 3: Students whose progress is still insufficient in response to Tier 2 instruction may receive even more intensive instruction, which can be provided in a variety of ways. Then, depending on a state’s or district’s policies, students may qualify for special education services based on the progress monitoring data, or they may receive either an abbreviated or comprehensive evaluation for the identification of a learning disability.
The Problem Solving Approach to RTI
For each student of concern, a school-based team of professionals (sometimes referred to as teacher assistance teams or instructional support teams) works together at each tier to:
Identify the problem and determine its cause
Develop a plan to address the problem
Implement the plan
Evaluate the plan’s effectiveness
Advantages with the IQ-achievement discrepancy model:
The IQ-achievement discrepancy model is an established practice.
It is relatively easy to employ.
A teacher does not have to spend a great amount of time in the identification process because a certified diagnostician or school psychologist conducts the IQ and achievement tests.
The identification procedure only requires a one-time assessment.
All my information was obtained from: The IRIS Center. (2006). RTI (part 1): An overview. Retrieved from