Unit 9: METHODOLOGICAL CONCERNS IN CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH, B) Culture…
Unit 9: METHODOLOGICAL CONCERNS IN CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH
B) Culture Comparative Studies
concentrate on hypothesis testing
when researchers have few ideas about what
they can expect to find.
2) Contextual Factor
Culture informed (interpretation of differences
Can only happen in ad hoc fashion
External validation studies, variable from cultural context brought into study is called design stage.
3) Thereotical Framework
has been examined in theory-driven studies
Cultural population can be selected and specific hypothesis formulated
Based on thereotical conception
advance our knowledge
4) Experimental Paradigm
Distinction independent variable and dependent variable
Assign subject at random to the various condition
5) Laboratory Experiment
Subject allocated at random to experimental condition
Subject remain unchanged (even allocated differently)
Set of variable on which difference will occur is limited
Manipulation of treatment- reduce plausible alternative explanation of difference between cultural group
eliminate competing alternative (difference of 2 measurements)
Elimination of effect of irrelevant variable (through statistical analysis
Extend database- Use more than 1 method of measurement
Level of Samplings
Few cultures that could provides a contrast of interest to the cross-cultural psychologist
Draw a sample of culture
C) Psychological Data in Cultural Context
1) Ecological Context
Relatively stable and permanent characteristic of population
Serve as basis for emergence of customs of a population
the complex, sometimes longstanding, shared behavior patterns that gradually have evolved in response to ecological demands.
2) Experiental Context
pattern of recurrent experiences that provides a basis for individual learning and development
set of independent variables that cross-cultural psychology tries to spot as being operative for individuals in a particular habitat during the development of behavioral characteristics.
3) Situational Context
Observed to account for performance of particular behavior at given time and place.
Particular settings lead to particular actions
4) Assessment Context
Represents those environmental characteristics, such as test items or stimulus conditions, that are designed by the psychologist to elicit a particular response or test score
may or may not be nested in the first three contexts
which it is nested can be said to represent the ecological validity of the task.
reflected in scores derived from the behaviors that are observed, measured, and recorded during psychological assessment.
A) Qualitative Approaches in Cross-cultural Psychology
Observation (experiment + measurement by questionnaire)
process of individual development and change in cultural environment.
Dynamic aspect require longitudinal
Static relationship independent and dependent variables
Not directly observed
Limited comparison data