Piaget’s cognitive development , Done by : Emelia, Qi En, Wei En, Lenice…
Piaget’s cognitive development
Basic characteristics of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development
The stages provide a general theory of development.
The stages always occur in a fixed order,cannot skip stage.
The stage applies to all children everyone.(universal)
The Preoperational stage (2 - 7years)
ability to represent actions mentally and ability to think about objects/events/people in their absence marks the beginning of the preoperational stage
demonstrates an increased ability to use symbol - gestures, words, numbers and images to represent real objects in their. environment (symbolic/representative thinking)
symbolic/representational thinking evolved & advanced from deferred imitation which had developed towards the end of sensorimotor stage
better at representing internally and independently
increased ability to hold and store mental images, toddlers entering the preoperational stage have increased memory
inability to distinguish between ones own perspective and someone else’s perspective
all objects, animals and things are living and capable of having feelings, intentions and emotions (object have ‘life-like’ qualities to non-living things)
language and cognition
language is the first type of communication between infants & adults
when caregivers interact with children, they provide the tools for mental development through the use of language
language plays a key role in cognition
play and cognition
make-believe play is usually accompanied by the development of language
when given opportunities to play with objects and peers, infants and toddlers promotes cognitive development such as problem solving skills
play contributes to their cognitive development
outdoor experience and the integration of sense will support and enhance infant’s toddlers multi-sensory experience
The Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2years)
Understand the world through the infomation taken in from senses and their actions on it
It is a coordination of sense of perception and muscle movement.
Birth to one month infants shows reflexes and simple inborn behaviour such as crying,sucking and sucking.
1 to 4 months refines simple behaviour,repeats and combines them such as reaching,grasping,sucking on fingers.
4 to 8 months infants repeats activity using objects and begins to have limited imitation.They accidentally makes a mobile in the crib move,notice it,tries to make it happen again.
8-12 months infants where they intentationally plans a movement to make something happen such as pulling a string to bring a toy closer.
12 to 18 months infants experiments with objects to create new events.They will question if a ball rolled from the table and bounce will the book do the same.
18 to 24 months infants imagines events and invents through mental combination while beginning to use words.Infants at this age van pretend to throw a ball and calls to a parent or caregiver, saying “here’s the ball” .
The infant devlops:
From inflexes to goal-directed activity
From the body to outside world
Development of object permanence
From action to mental representation
The ability to remember an object even when is disappears and the awareness that it still exist.
It only occurs around 8 months old.
The ability to make believe play,awareness of pictures as symbols of reality
Piaget’s beliefs of cognitive development
Intelligence is an active, constructive and dynamic process.
Mistakes reflect thought processes at the current stages of development.
The new mode of thought is based on earlier structure of thinking.
How Piaget's theory differs from others
It proposes discrete stages of development, marked by qualitative differences, rather than a gradual increase in number and complexity of behaviors, concepts, ideas, etc.
It focuses on development, rather than learning per se, so it does not address learning of information or specific behaviors.
It is concerned with children, rather than all learners.
Concrete Operational Stage (7 - 11 years)
This means the child can work things out internally in their head (rather than physically try things out in the real world).
Children can conserve number (age 6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9). Conservation is the understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance changes.
a major turning point in the child's cognitive development because it marks the beginning of logical or operational thought.
Formal Operational Stage (11 years and over)
During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts, and logically test hypotheses.
begins at approximately age eleven and lasts into adulthood.
This happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation.
For example : In the “clown” incident, the boy’s father explained to his son that the man was not a clown and that even though his hair was like a clown’s, he wasn’t wearing a funny costume and wasn’t doing silly things to make people laugh.
With this new knowledge, the boy was able to change his schema of “clown” and make this idea fit better to a standard concept of “clown”.
occurs when a child's schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation. However, an unpleasant state of disequilibrium occurs when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas (assimilation).
the force which drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge (accommodation). Once the new information is acquired the process of assimilation with the new schema will continue until the next time we need to make an adjustment to it.
This is the force which moves development along. Piaget believed that cognitive development did not progress at a steady rate, but rather in leaps and bounds.
Which is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.
For example : A 2-year-old child sees a man who is bald on top of his head and has long frizzy hair on the sides. To his father’s horror, the toddler shouts “Clown, clown” (Siegler et al., 2003).
Done by : Emelia, Qi En, Wei En, Lenice T18