Speech Disorder. - Coggle Diagram
Types of Speech Disorders.
Most common is stuttering.
Apraxia: motor speech disordered that has been caused by damage to parts of the brain that are related to speaking.
Find it difficult or even impossible to make certain motor movements, even the the muscles are normal
Occurs in different forms.
Orofacial apraxia: where a person is unable to perform specific movements involving facial muscles voluntarily. They might not be able to lick their lips or wink.
Another form is where a person finds it hard to intentionaly move their arms and legs.
Apraxia involving speech makes it very hard for a person to use their mouth and tongue. Including making it very difficult for a person to form words.
Apraxia forms involving speech.
Can occur at any age, where the condition causes people to lose their speech making abilities.
Childhood apraxia of speech.
Motor speech disorder.
Affects a childs ability to form words and sounds,
Present from birth.
Have greater skills at understanding speech, than being able to express themselves.
With the correct treatment children will experience significant improvement, if not full recovery.
Minimal babbling during infancy.
Difficulty string syllables together in the appropriate order to make words.
Difficulty pronouncing long or complex words.
Repeated attempts at the pronunciation of words.
Incorrect inflections or stresses on certain sounds or words.
Excessive use of non verbal forms of communication.
Distorting of vowel sounds.
Omittting constants at the beginnings and ends of words.
Struggling to make words.
Rarely occurs alone. Often acompanied by other language or cognitive difficulties, causing:
Problems with coordination and motor skills.
Difficulties chewing and swallowing.
Damage to the areas of the brain that have the ability speech.
Head trauma, brain tumour or stroke.
Studies looking into brain abnormalities or genetics, possibly being a cause.
Experts do not know what causes childhood apraxia. Scientists believe that possibly there are signalling problems between the brain and the muscles used for speaking.
Dysarthria: motor speech disorder where muscles of the mouth, face or respiratory system become weaked and have difficulty moving.
Unable to coordinate or control the muscles used for speech production in the face, mouth and respiratory system.
Result of a brain injury or neurological condition.
Lose the ability to pronounce sounds correctly or speak at a normal level.
Unable to control the quality,intonation and pace at which you speak.
Slowed or slurred speech.
Traumatic head injury.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Injury to your tongue.
Some infections such as strep throat or tonsillitis
The abnormal, varied rhythm of speech.
Speaking softly or in a whisper.
Difficulty changing the volume of your speech.
Nasal, strained or hoarse vocal quality.
Difficulty controlling facial muscles.
Difficulty, chewing swallowing or controlling your tongue.
What is a Speech Disorder?
Problems occur with how speech is formed and how a person creates sounds to form words.
Voice disorders can also be considered speech disorders.
The vocal folds, muscles, nerves and other structures within the throat are effected.
Symptoms of a Speech Disorder.
Repetition of sounds.
Extra sounds and words added to speech.
Jerking movements while talking.
Blinking several times while speaking.
Frustration when trying to communicate.
Taking frequent pauses when talking.
Distorting sounds when talking.
Hoarseness, or speaking with a raspy or gravelly sounding voice.
Vocal fold damage, brain damage, muscle and respiratory weakness, strokes, polyps or nodules on the vocal folds and vocal fold paralysis.
Muscle weakness. Lack of normal muscle control or contraction. Persistant muscle weakness or muscle weakness with no apparent cause. Brain, nervous system, muscles or connections between are injured or affected by disease, your muscles may not contracted normally, leading to muscle weakness.
muscular dystrophies, multiple sclerosis and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Graves disease, Myasthenia gravis and Guillian-Barre syndrome.
Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism.
Hypokalemia, Hypomagnesemia and Hypercalcemia.
Stroke, Herniated disc, CFS/ME, Hypotonia, Peripheral neuropathy, Neuralgia, Chronic muscle inflamation, Prolonged bed rest, Alcoholism
Viruses and infections.
Polio, West Nile virus, Rheumatic Fever.
Statins, Antiarrhythmic drugs and Corticosteroids.
Medical or developmental conditions.
Autism, ADHD, strokes, oral cancer, laryngeal cancer, Huntington's disease, Dementia and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Effects the Larynx. Signs: Horse voice. Breathing difficulties. Excessive coughing. Coughing with blood. Neck pain. Sore throat. Ear pain. Trouble swallowing. Lump or swelling in the neck. Sudden weight loss.
Occurs in the voice box, when healthy cells are damaged and begin to over grow, possibly leading to a tumour. Can be a result of heavy alcohol consumption, poor nutrition, human papillomavirus, immune system problems, work place exposure to toxins. Certain genetic diseases.
Abnormal tissue growths. Look likesmall flat bumps or tiny mushroomlike stalks. Most commonly occur in the colon, but can also appear in the ear canal, cervix, stomach, nose, uterus and throat. Mostly benign, but can become malignant or cancerous.
Causes are based on the specific areas they are located in. Example in the throat polyps can be caused by shouting loudly or damage from a breathing tube. Other causes are: inflammation, a foreign object, a cyst, a tumour, mutation of the genes in the colon cells, chronic stomach inflammation and excess estrogen.
Develops in the tissues of the mouth and throat. Found in the lips, tongue, inner lining of the cheeks, gums, the floor of the mouth and hard and soft palate.
Symptoms: Sore on the lip or mouth that won't heal. A mass or growth anywhere in the mouth. Bleeding from the mouth. Loose teeth. Pain or difficulty swallowing. Difficulty wearing dentures. A lump in the neck that won't go away. An earache that won't go away. Dramatic weight loss. lower lip, Face, neck and chin numbness. Red, white and red, or white patches in or on our mouth and lips. A sore throat. Jaw pain or stiffness. Tongue pain.
Blood vessels in the brain rupture and bleed out or there is a blockage in the brain preventing blood supply getting to an area of the brain. Also preventing oxygen from getting to the brain tissue and this brain tissue will become damaged, so the sooner a stroke is treated the less damage is done. In a scan the parts of the brain that have been damaged show up and corrolate with the parts of the body that no longer work properly i.e speech.
Symtoms in women are different: Nausea or vomiting. Hallucinations. Pain and gerneral weakness. Shortness of breath/ trouble breathing. Fainting/ losing consciousness. Seizures. Confusion/ disorientation. Sudden behavioural changes.
Symtoms: paralysis, numbness of weakness in the arms, legs or face especially on one side of the body. Confusion. Trouble with speech or understanding it. Slurring speech. Vision problems. Trouble with balance. Dizziness or sudden servere headache.
Decline in cognitive function effecting the, memory, thinking, language, judgement and behaviour.
Not classified as a disease.
Progressive, but some types are treatable, even reversible.
Early signs of dementia.
Not coping well with change.
Changes in short term memory making.
Finding it hard to find the right words.
Confused sense of direction.
Struggle to follow story lines.
Change in mood.
Loss of interest.
Difficulty carrying out everyday tasks.
Alzheimer's disease, most common types, 80-90 %.
Vascular Dementia: caused by reduced blood flow in the brain.
Lewy Body Dementia: protein deposits in nerve cells prevent the brain from sending chemical signals.
Parkinson's disease: when advanced dementia may occur, causing problems with judgement and reasoning, increased irritability, paranoia and depression.
Frontotemporal Dementia: affected parts of the brain in the front and side. Signs are difficuties with language and behaviour, as well as loss of inhibitions.
What causes dementia?
Common causes: Alzheimer's disease, Neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson's disease with dementia, Vascular dementia, Medication ide effects, Chronic alcoholism and certain tumours or infections of the brain.
Degeneration of neurons (brain cells) or disturbance in other body systems that affect how neurons function.
How are Speech Disorders diagnosed?
Denver Articulation Screening Exam.
Evaluates clarity in pronunciation in children of the ages between 2 and 7.
Early Language Milestones Scale 2.
Determines a child's language development. Identifying delayed speech or language disorders
Peabody picture vocabulary test.
Measures a person's vocabulary and ability to speak.
Dependent on the severity and type of disorder.
Speech therapists will use exercises to strengthen the weakened muscles in the face and throat.
Learn to control breathing.
Talking therapy maybe used to help with anxiety and embarassment.