three principal findings from the literature
asynchronous multimedia-based oral communication has been used in conjunction with a variety of instructional methods to promote language gains in terms of fluency, accuracy and pronunciation
the methods found that technical training, preparatory activities, project-based learning, and self-evaluation with revision activities.
the majority of previous studies demonstrating the effectiveness of these methods have relied on learner perceptions of language gains rather than on recordings of learner speech.
Summary of inclusion/exclusion criteria
asynchronous video + language, asynchronous CMC + language, asynchronous + speaking + language, video-mediated communication + language, vlog + language, Wimba + language, oral CMC, video drafts + language, and blended learning + video + language
Conclusions about these traits:AMOC has been shown to have the potential to promote language gains in various linguistic aspects, but additional studies and more rigorous research methods are needed to confirm this
Methodologies for measuring and analyzing language gains in AMOC
Data type- Frequency
Frequency of data analysis types
Data sources: Surveys, journals, and reflections were combined into this single category.Audio and video recordings were used as a source of data in roughly one half of the studies considered in this review (n=12). Recordings were either coded for qualitative analysis (n= 6), measured and assigned descriptive statistics (n = 4), or assessed using expert evaluation (n= 4). Three studies used two different analysis types on the recordings (Kormos & Dénes, 2004; Sun, 2012; Sun & Yang, 2015).
Conclusions on methodologies: researchers relied more heavily on learner perceptions of speech production than on their recorded speech production when studying AMOC in language learning, including studies focusing on the effect of AMOC on learner language gains. Learner perceptions, expert evaluation, and objective measurements would enable researchers to more accurately evaluate learner language gains from using AMOC.
Conclusions : AMOC can be beneficial to learners in promoting language gains. Studies considered in this review investigated its effects on accuracy, fluency, and pronunciation, showing that it can be a useful technology in helping learners develop these aspects of their language. However, the research does not universally show that AMOC leads to language gains. While self-evaluations and revisions promote language gains, it is unclear what systems for self-evaluating and revising are most effective.AMOC remains an intriguing means of promoting spoken language gains but further research is needed to determine what aspects of spoken language it is best suited for developing and how to effectively incorporate it into a curriculum.