Final Exam: Isl. Fundamentalism in the Arab World - Coggle Diagram
Final Exam: Isl. Fundamentalism in the Arab World
Answer the following questions briefly in a few sentences (2 p. each)
Shari'a: Define the term. What is its significance to Islamic fundamentalism?t
Qutb saw Mongols as apostate Muslims because they were not following the Shar'ia
Al Qaeda condemned Muslim leaders for not upholding and encouraging shari'ah and 'true Islamic faith'
Haram (p. 17 Hourani)
"Once these principls has been stated and generally accepted, it was possible to attempt to relate the whole body of laws and moral percepts to them. This process of thought was known as fiqh, and the product of it came ultimately to be called shari'a" p. 68 - 69, Hourani
p. 40 The Secret History of al Qaeda; "Probable many of those who currently support him would not endorse either his extreme violence or the kind of shar'ah governance Salafis' would like them to live under, but for the moment these are minor details for them."
p. 40, The Secret History of al Qaeda; "Khomeini spreading his message; [...] calling for full implementation of shari'ah and the combatting of corruption" bezogen auf Bin Laden Meinung
POSITIONS OF SALAFI PARTIESComplications abound, too, when it comes to Salafis’ political positions, which do not necessarily reflect the desires of their supporters or walk in lockstep with one another. Although Nur holds that the “principles of the Islamic Shari’a are the primary source of legislation” (this was the standard formulation in Article 2 of Egypt’s constitution under Mubarak) and wants “democracy in the framework of the Islamic Shari’a,” many of its posi-tions align with some universal democratic principles:
William McCants (2012). The Lesser of Two Evils: The Salafi Turn to Party Politics in Egypt. Brookings, Middle East memo, Number 23, May 2012.
Zakat: Define the term and explain its relevance to Islamic fundamentalism
Wahabism: Define the term and explain its relationship
Islamic fundamentalism can be considered as part of a broader phenomenon of religious fundamentalism. Certain themes and characteristics are found in common between Islamic fundamentalism and other religious fundamentalisms. Discuss coherently in a couple of paragraphs-up to a page (max.) (8 points)
What do religious fundamentalist have in common? What characteristics do they share?
social context in their country; reasons and motives why they appear
threat to identity and way of life; fear of assimilation; survival of religion is at stake
exist in larger context of secular humanism and marginalization of religion-Secular Humanism controls media and education & wields influence in government
look toward religious traditions for solutions to modern problems - yearn for the ideal past
simple & conservative
focus on correct behaviour and self-discipline
Fascination with miracles
Feeling of being 'God's chosen people'
well defined gender roles
Millennarian; seeing an event where everything ends
Dichotomy: God vs. Satan; seperation between morally superior and the other
way of living/ infrastructure
autonomous schools and community spaces
no distinction between sacred and profane-work/living/ praying space
rejection of pop/modern music and gravitation towards religious songs
phenomenon of establishing Enclaves
language from religious scripts
historical clothing, different hairstyles
ritual, no contact with modern culture
What causes fundamentalists to be politically active?
react to change or threat of change in national identity
Sayid Qutb: fear of westernization of Egypt; because more western influence in Egytpian poetry
threat to religious traditions and reaction to boundary change
US: abortion rights, changing gender roles, gay marriage
reacting against internal change
expanding secularization of the public space
For each of the following events: Describe the event and explain the contribution to the rise of Islamic Fundamentalism in the Arab World. Write a few cohesive sentences. (2 points each for a total of 8 points)
The Gulf War 1991
Palestinians in Kuwait that had sympathies with Saddam Hussein were led out of the country
Arab states stopped the financial support of the PLO -> weakens the position and strenght of the PLO -> PLO had to debate with Israel about Peace -> Oslo Agreements: PLO recognizes the state of Israel -> Hamas that was not in the PLO has increased his power
the establishment of US military bases was because of the preparation of the Gulf War and has lasted till 2003
Bin Laden was not in favour with the establishment US military bases in Saudi Arabia. This strengthens his anti-us-american sentiments and was not in sympathy with his own government in Saudi Arabia anymore
more about Bin Laden; look it up in the comprehension
tries to prepare a battle against us-american invaders
was under house arrest by the government and his passport was confiscated but he used his family's close connection to the royal family
at first, he wanted to join the war with a arab coalition of mujahideen, but then he found out that the Saudi Government will cooperate with the US American Forces
The Lebanon War 1982
PLO got destructed
Hizbullah increases its power
Lebanon got more and more involved in the Arab Israeli conflict
massacre in the Palestinian refugee camps in Southern Lebanon by Israeli allied strenghtened antizionist positions in Islamic Fundamentalism and Islamic Fundamentalist movements
The Arab Spring
The Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan 1979
The beginning of the Soviet-Afghan War (1979-1989); the fight between mujahideen and the communists supported by the Soviet troops (parallel with bin Laden's view on the US military in Saudi Arabia)
Jihadi groups had only partial support of the population but the financial support of the US and Saudi Arabia -> let them dominate as combatants against the Soviet coup
This financial support and support in weapons increased the power of the mujahideen and Osama bin Laden and strengthens Islamic Fundamentalism in the region
Answer each of the following questions in one paragraph max. (3 points each - 18 points total)
Who is Rachid al Ghannouchi? and what was his contribution to our understanding of Islamic Fundamentalism?
president of the Ennahda Movement
co-founder of the Ennahda Party
What was his contribution?
preferring a democratic secular system of government instead of a despotic system of government that claims to be Islamic
combination of the Islamic concept pf taqwa with his political point of view: "observing of the law is not only conscience-satisfying [...] but [also] an act of worship to gain the pleasure of the Almighty" p. 119; "civil society in which good is done and evil is avoided not out of fear of the state but in response to the call of religious conscience, exemplified in another Prophetic tradition: 'God is compassionate to those who show compassion to his creatures on earth'
person's civility: "a function of his ability to transcend his egoism and control his desires"
critizise a concept of secular theocracy (mosques can be considered as state property, p. 105, Pope is represented in the person of the president p. 106) but also the concept of western secularism (state above religion)
redefining secularism in a different way: "granting reason absolute authority to search without obstruction" - Muhammad Arkoun; "perfectly compatible with Islam" p. 106
stating that the conflict isn ot a religious conflict. it is more a conflict between the oppresor and the oppressed c. t. p. 101
common characteristic features of Islamic society and the modern conception of civil society - but western secularism not possible in Tunuesia; shared power between government - the political authority - and society
terms tawahush (in western societies, present signs in various parts of the Muslim society), freedom of itjihad, 'ulama
Who is Sayid Qutob and what was his major contribution to Islamic Fundamentalism in the Arab World?
has written with his book XY and YZ books that has influenced the ideology of Islamic Fundamentalism for decades. The Muslim Brotherhood and other movements inside Islamic Fundamentalism adapted parts of his ideological fundament
Egyptian poet and journalist
How does Al Qaeda differ from ISIS?
the way of the releasement of their statements
ISIS: impressive social media efforts; make it better able to mobilize "lone wolves" to attack in the West (p. 9)
Al-Qaeda: needed Western journalists to bring its message to its target audience (p. 7)
targets and enemies p. 8
Al-Qaeda: prioritizing striking the U.S. homeland and Europe
ISIS: focus remains expansion in the Muslim World
ISIS: danger is more to the stability of the Middle East and U. S. interests overseas (p. 2)
Al-Qaeda: threat to the U. S. homeland (p. 2)
in common: try to
try to establish relationships with other groups in other countries
strategy p. 5
Al-Qaeda: "far enemy" strategy
ISIS: "near enemy" strategy
ways to show power (p. 7)
ISIS: mass executions, public beheadings, rape, and symbolic crucifixion
Al-Qaeda: more gentle approach, recommends proselytizing; convince local Muslims to adopt their views rather to force them to do so
Al-Qaeda: kidnapping and executing of Henning and Kassig by ISIS "wrong under Islamic law", 'innocent aid workers
Al Qaeda is weaker and less dynamic than the Islamic State, p. 2
Who is Sheikh Ra'ed Salah? And what is his contribution to Islamic Fundamentalism?
one of the founders of the Islamic Movement inside Israel (founded in the 1970s, emerged in the public in the 1980s) p.1
head of the 'Northern Islamic Movement' after split in 1996 (reason: disagreement about participation in the Knesset) p.1
mayor of Um al-Fahm from 1989 until mid-2001, elected with a high percentage of all votes;
vice chairperson of the National Committee of Arab Mayors, p. 1
prominent member of the Hig Follow-Up Committee for the Arab Citizens in Israel
found and president of the al-Aqsa Institution for Maintaining the Islamic Sacred Places, p.1
two attacks on him, in then 2000s, monitored by Israeli government, charged for supporting 'terrorism' by raising money for the West Bank Islamic charities-> sentenced to three and a half years inprisonment but released in July 2005
Contribution to Islamic Fundamentalism?
positions of the Northern Islamic Movement
organizes rally called 'al-Aqsa Endangered' in Um al-Fahm which attracts thousands of Palestinian citizens from across Israel
protect existence of probable Palestinian land, defend rights of Palestinians, protect Jerusalem and sacred sites, support of Palestinian people p. 68
not participate in national elections for the Knesset, just for local elections in arab villages
launched Charity foundings like the One Thousand Charitable Fund (p. 71), try to establish Islamic Social Institutions in realtion to zakat
try to establish connections to other Palestinian Movements outside Israel like the PLO
rejects notion of an "inevitable clash of civilisation with the western world" p. 75
How is Hamas different from the Islamic Movement inside Israel?
has a bigger emphasis on Islamic Resistance than Jihad
How does Quinton Wictorowicz classify Salafis? Briefly describe each classification.
"primary emphasis of the movement should be promoting the Salafi creed and combating deviant practices" p. 217
concerned with maintaining the purity of Islam as outlined in the Qur'an, Sunna, and consensus of the Companions
"Christians, Jews, and the West more generally are seen as eternal enemies determined to destroy Islam by polluting it with their concepts and values", p. 218
"highly unlikely to engage in interfaith dialogue and often try to physically seperate themselves from non-Muslims" p. 219
"ardently reject the oppositional method of the politicos and jihadis as religious innovations [...] politics of the politicos and jihadis are seen as products of the West" p. 219
"portray jihadis and politicos as rationalists driven my human desire", p. 220
"emphasize application of the Salafi creed to the political arena, which they view a particularly important because it dramatically impacts social justice and the right of God alone to legislate" p. 208
"during the 1980s and 1990s by a group of young, more politically minded Salafi scholars" p. 221
"take a more militant position and argue that the current context calls for violence and revolution" p. 208
Salafis in common
"share the same approach to religious jurisprudence, they often hold different interpretations about contemporary politics and conditions" p. 208
united by common religious creed and aqida - the basic dogma or articles of faith
three things in common (concept of tawhid): the one God is the sole creator and sovereing of the universe; God is supreme and entirely unique, does not share characteristics or powers with humans or any of His creations; God alone has the right to be worshipped
for a long time, salafi movement was relatively homogenous, p. 221
"started to fray when during the 1960s when members of the Muslim Brotherhood began arriving in Saudi Arabia", p. 222