Exposure of the affected area to sunlight is strongly associated with the development of this lesion. Other possible factors include the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in the skin, occupational exposure to tar and/or pitch, a compromised immune status, and exposure to several forms of HPV, including types 9, 11, 13, 16, 18, 24, 25, 33, 37, and 57.
METHOD OF TRANSMISSION
edge of the vermilion border of the lower lip. dome-shaped nodules display a smooth shiny surface with a central crater containing a core or plug of keratin
Observation of a lesion with this general appearance during an extraoral examination should prompt a medical referral by the dental health care provider. In addition, patients who develop KAs are at higher risk for developing subsequent nonmelanoma skin cancer
Surgical excision is the treatment of choice