The Organization of The Periodic Table - Coggle Diagram
The Organization of The Periodic Table
What is The Periodic Table?
Its a way of classifying the elements.
It shows them in order of their proton number.
Elements with similar properties appear at regular intervals.
Rows are called periods, numbered 0 to 7.
The heavy zig-zag line above separates metals from non-metals.
More about groups
A period number tells you the number of electrons shells in the atoms.
Metals and non-metals
Metals are to the left of the zig-zag, more metals than non-metals. Both have very different properties.
These artificial elements are radioactive, and their atoms break down very quickly.
Outer-shell electrons are also called valency electrons.
The group number is the same as the number of outer-shell in the atoms.
All elements in a group have similar reactions, because they have the same number of valency electrons.
Atoms of the group 0 elements have a very stable arrangment of electrons in their outer shells,this makes them unreactive.
The Alkali Metals
Not typical metals.
Good conductors of heat and electricity.
Low melting and boilng points.
Low density and float on water.
Reaction with water:
The Alkali metals react vigorously with water. Example: sodium+water= sodium hydroxide+hydrogen.
Reaction with chlorine
Burn brightly, forming chlorides. Example: sodium+chlorine= sodium chloride.
Reaction with oxygen
Burn fiercely to form oxides.
All alkali react in similar way, because they have the same number of valency, the outer-shell electrons.
Are they reactive?
Most reactive of all metal.
Strong drive to react with other elements or compounds.
Become ions, the compounds they form are ionic.
Most reactive elements in the Periodic Table, react with metals to form compounds called halides.
For example: Chlorine is a halogen, its reaction with iron wool is, that hot iron wool glows brightly when chlorine passes over it. The product is iron(III) chloride, FeCI3, its apperance is yellow solid. The reactivity always decreases.
React at similar way because their atoms all have 7 valency, outer-shell electron.
Boling Point and density increases. Color get deeper.
The VII group is a groups of non-metal elements. Includes flourine, chlorine, bromine and iodine. Usually called the halogens.
Reaction with Halides
When chlorine with water is added to a colourless solution of potassium bromide, the solution turns orange.
Are they reactive?
They are recative because the halogen atoms need just one more electron to reach a stable outer shell of 8 electrons,
Strong drive to react with other elements or compounds, to gain this electron.
Are they unreactive?
Atoms react in order to gain a stable outer shell of electrons.
The atoms of the noble gases already have a stable outer shell with 8 electrons, except for helium which has 2.
The noble gases are unreactive, and monatomic, because their atoms already have a stable outer electron shell.
Harder to separated them to form gas, and mass of the atom increases.
Group of non-metals contains the elements helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon.
Monatomic, they exist as single atoms. Are called noble.
Uses of the noble gases
They glow when a current is passed through them at low preassure.
Helium is used to fill ballons and airships.
Used in lighthouse lamps, xenon gives light like bright daylight, but with a blue tinge. Example: Lights for hospital, car headlamps and operating rooms.
Its used to provide and inter atmosphere, example: It can be used as a filler in tungsten light bulbs. Or to protect metals that are being welded, it wont react with he hot metals.
Used in advertising signs.
Used in lasers, an example for eye surgery and in car headlamps.
For structures such as cars, buildings and bridges.
Radicators and electricity warning.
Are the block of 30 elements in the middle of Periodic Table.
Are all metals.
Examples: Iron, Copper, and Silver.
Wikipedia. (2020). Periodic Table [jpg]. Retrived from
Chemistry Learner (2020). Halogens [jpg] Retrived from
Chemistry Learner. (2020). Alkaline Earth Metals [jpg]. Retrived from
Britannica. (2019). Transition Elements. Retrived from
Gallagher, R. M., & Ingram, P. (2011). Complete chemistry for Cambridge IGCSE. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
Pinterest. (2017) Noble Gases. Retrived from