Week 5: Leavening Agents & Phosphates - Coggle Diagram
Week 5: Leavening Agents & Phosphates
Phosphates: GRAS by USFDA :check:
3 Categories :check:
Orthophosphate (Single tetrahedron) : Help to stabilize pH in foods
Di-(DSP) and Tri-sodium (TSP) phosphate: increase pH
MSP and DSP combinations: generally used in buffering systems
Monosodium phosphate (MSP): an acidulant
Tripolyphosphates: 3 P Atoms
Sodium tripolyphosphate: Used in limited amounts in foods
Potassium tripolyphosphate: Seldom use in food
Only used when other phosphates are too astringent
Polyphosphates: Polymers of (NaPO3)n (n > 3)
used to modify protein functionality
Aid or inhibit coagulation
Sequester metal ions
Buffer or pH stabilization
Increase water binding
Modify or interact with proteins & other charged hydrocolloids to form complexes
Iron and calcium phosphates – most common in non-carbonated beverages
Complex metal ions: Prevent loss of carbonation caused by heavy metals
(25-90% less CO2 needed in untreated water)
Acidification: Common in cola beverages, giving a natural tartness.
Improve flow of powders in dry mixes
Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) most commonly used and also assists in size distribution of the dry mix.
Generally, In Dairy Products :check:
In evaporated milk
Concentrated milk (Condensed whole milk)
Age gelation stability (Gelation of milk during storage): increased by orthophosphate and inhibited by polyphosphates
Chelation of Fe & Cu in butter
Application in milk gels ie. TSPP (Tetrasodium pyrophosphate)
Control of gum gelation
Melting of processed cheese
Aid for whipped toppings
Phosphates and casein in milk: Calcium orthophosphate is involved in the formation and stabilization of the casein system.
Processed cheese requires phosphate to remove calcium from the casein micelle of cheese to emulsify the fat and turn the casein into a thermal plastic material.
Blends of phosphates and citrates most commonly used, singly or in combination
Citrates pre-dominate in products made with young cheese
Phosphates pre-dominate in products with aged cheese.
Sodium orthophosphates develops less acceptable flavour with aging.
SALP retain a richer, “cheesy” flavour for longer period.
Citrates and/or phosphates provide a buffering capacity to stabilize the system in optimum pH range of 5.4-5.6.
In Cereal Products :check:
Buffer pH (by lowering pH) in cereals during cooking
Decreased cooking time
Dough Conditioners (SALP, acidic Calcium phosphate)
Inhibition of microbiological growth
Improved Tortillas by steeping corn in MSP, DSP or TSP
Protect from oxidation
Antioxidant activity (MSP & DSP)
Inhibition of enzyme activity (DSP)
Egg products :check:
Protect whole egg or egg yolk against discoloration upon exposure to air.
Polyphosphates stabilise eggs against the action of proteolytic enzymes of liquid eggs.
STP enhances the whipping properties of egg whites.
SHMP stabilizes egg whites during pasteurization with triacetin (humectant) to prevent loss of foaming.
MSP reduces tendency for overbeating of egg whites by reducing pH to 8.0.
Other Dairy (non-cheese) Applications :check:
Increase solubility of non-fat dry milk by adding metaphosphates.
Increase whipping properties of casein.
Stabilize frozen desserts to fat agglomeration.
Stabilize coffee whiteners during heat treatment and concentration and prevent “feathering” or curdling of protein when added to coffee.
DSP is commonly used with potassium salt giving less flavor and being more soluble (SALP used in some instances).
Serve as buffers and stabilizing agents for protein films needed to make stiff foam and prevent syneresis. (DSP, DKP, TSPP)
Meat Products :check:
Increase moisture retention (water holding capacity: SHMP increases juiciness → decreases cooking loss.
Polyphosphates (SHMP) provides pH 6.5-6.6 to retard oxidation of natural meat pigments that accelerate at the pH range of fresh meat of 5.2.
Prevent development of rancid flavours in meat fat.
DSP is the most effective.
Phosphates (SHMP, TSPP) cause dissociation of actomyosin and improve tenderness of all meats.
Pyrophosphates combine with Magnesium give muscle relaxation → improve tenderness.
Action not associated with pH.
Used for “reformed” meat eg. Cured sausages.
Assist in extraction of actomyosin and improves binding.
LEAVENING AGENTS : Source of gas which causes dough/batter to rise
Carbon dioxide gas
Steam & air
Mixing process, which forces air into dough or batter
React with acid/acidic ingredients in a moist batter with heat, to produce gas :check:
Different Chemical Leavening agents :check:
Slow-acting powder: Release major portion of gas during heating (in oven).
Pyrophosphates – slow
Sodium aluminium phosphates – slower
Sodium aluminium sulphates - slowest
Double-acting powders: 2 acid ingredients: 1 fast & 1 slow.
Slow-acting releases gas upon in the oven.
usually is pyrophosphate.
E.g Sodium acid pyrophosphate
Fast-acting releases gas during mixing/bench top.
usually is orthophosphate.
E.g. Monocalcium phosphate monohydrate
Fast-acting powder: Release large amount of gas after mixing or on bench (room temperature).
Great for household use but not used alone in commercial.
Tartrate (acid) and orthophosphate (base) types.
Ammonium bicarbonate or carbonate (Baker’s ammonium): Break down by heat to release CO2, NH3 & H2O without residual salts formation :check:
commonly used in combination with acid salt & soda.
CO2 during mixing/on bench.
NH3 compounds in the oven
Used in cookies and crackers, where the cellular structure is porous to permit the slow escape of gases formed.
Incomplete escape would have the taste & odour of NH3 in the product.
High moisture products also retain NH3 odour, therefore it’s only used in low moisture products.
Phosphates: Largest use is in prepared mixes because of broad choice of phosphates with different rates of CO2.
Acidification for release of CO2
Buffering provides optimum pH for baked product
Interaction with flour ingredients provides optimum viscosity and elasticity in the dough or batter
Anhydrous MonoCalcium Phosphate coated (AMCP)
Improved leavening stability than MCP.
Use in cake mixes, self raising flour
Sodium Aluminum Phosphates (SALP)
Have bland flavors and tolerant to wide variations in flour & ingredients.
Used in a wide range of bakery products eg. self raising flour.
DiCalcium Phosphate (DCP)
Use in cakes, breads and other products that bake slowly.
Slowest release of CO2, usually all released during baking.
Sodium Acid PyroPhosphates (SAPP)
Imparts an astringent flavour.
Only leavening agent usable for refrigerated dough
Commonly used for cake & doughnut mixes (or with MCP)
MonoCalcium Phosphate Monohydrate (MCP)
Most rapid release of CO2 – complete during mixing – used in combination with slower acting to retain CO2 release during baking
difficult to achieve uniform gas results due to variations in acidity which cause different degrees of neutralization of soda and acid, imparting poor flavour and quality.
Yeast - CO2 produced during fermentation. eg. bread/bakery
Factors affecting leavening action :check:
Proper selection of acidulants eg. cream of tartar, buttermilk
Bubble size formed during mixing
Quality of the gluten in the flour
Viscosity during mixing
Dough reaction rate (DRR) which combines CO2 release during mixing and during bench action (relaxation)
Ratio of CO2 release during baking and dough preparation (varies widely)
Some combinations :check:
used to obtain:
Texture: maximum uniformity and finer
highly emulsified shortenings causes batter to incorporate and retain numerous minute air bubbles during mixing
optimum shape of the baked cake
Self raising flours: contain flour, salt, soda & leavening acid.
Shortening & liquid to be added to make muffins etc.
Blends of AMCP and SALP used in majority of the mixes.
Reason: gives better flavor and more stability in storage conditions of high humidity
Prepared biscuit mixes:combinations of 30-50% AMCP + 50-70% SALP or SAPP.
MCP/AMCP + SALP in mixes for consumer to prepare the batter the night before
MCP + SALP or MCP + SALP + SAPP in mixes for frozen batters to provide freeze thaw stability during transportation.