Unit 6 consequences of industrialization review (1750-1900 CE) :!!: -…
Unit 6 consequences of industrialization review (1750-1900 CE)
How ideologies contributed to imperialism
Social Darwinism :red_flag:
Some used it so say that the people from Asia and Africa were less evolved than those from Europe. Europeans thought that by conquering other countries it would civilize them.
Darwinism- idea of natural selection, evolution, and survival of the fittest. Social Darwinism- belief in a superior culture.
Imperialism meant making the power or influence of a country greater. Social Darwinism as used by powerful countries to justify imperialism.
Nationalism- promoting their own country.
Nationalism and the idea of imperialism led to the Scramble of Africa on who took what piece.
It shows the power over other nations.
Religious conversion :red_flag:
People believed their religion was superior so they would try to convert other people.
Christians in Europe tried to establish as many churches to show power.
Europeans spread Christianity to Africans in order to bring its country under control (dominate.)
How state power shifted in parts of the world
Scramble for Africa :red_flag:
Increase of women and children slaves. During this time they would put black lives in concentration camps which would end of dead. King Leopold ll had them in bad conditions and forced them to harvest.
During the 1800s countries would place their flags on countries they wanted.
During the Berlin conference(Scramble for Africa) these countries gained these lands. French gained control over Algeria and Northwestern Africa, The British over South Africa and Egypt, Belgium over Congo and Central Africa, and the Portuguese over the Eastern/Western edges of Africa,
Belgian Congo :red_flag:
King Leopold ll created a colony in the Congo river and later on it was passed to the Belgian government and it was renamed as Belgian Congo.
King Leopold ll had over 5 million people murdered and hands chopped from Congo.
Belgium gained control over Congo in Central Africa.
American Imperialism :red_flag:
During the 1890s America was in crisis because immigrants caused crowded areas. Imperialism helped Americans get out of economic depression.
Americans used to go to countries to try to dominate and obtain those countries. For example the Philippines and Puerto Ricans, they were treated badly except Hawaii because it had more whites.
Americans tried to take over Central America in order to continue/expand slavery.
Influence of external and internal factors on state building
Rebellion in India :red_flag:
The Indian rebellion was the start of Indian nationalism in which British killed killed thousands of people and also ended the Mughal empire.
Sepoy Mutiny was the rebellion against British rule in India. They wanted to get rid of British rule because their punishments were unnecessary and harsh. (Tying soldiers to the mouth of a cannon and then firing it if they disobeyed )
At first the Sepoys (Native soldiers)respected the British officers but then they found out during the 1840s that they were trying to convert them to Christianity and it all changed.
Establishment of Balkan states :red_flag:
Montenegro, Bosnia, Herezgovia, and Bulgaria all fought against ottoman rule.
Greece and Serbia fought for many years and that's how they obtained their independence.
Romania, Montenegro, and Serbia were able to expand and became independent, Bulgaria principality was formed and later on split into 3 pieces because westerners were concerned about how the Russians would rule Bulgaria.
Xhosa Cattle movement :red_flag:
Natives who were fought by the British because they didn't allow Europeans to rule them.
They began dying of sickness and diseases because of the British settlers so they believed that by killing Cattles and crops it would create spirits that would remove the British settlers .
About 400,00 Xhosa people dying of starvation by killing their Cattles. They loved and had a deep/strong connection with their Cattles so by removing them it affected many. They believed dead was not the end (belief of both Christianity and Xhosa culture.)
Contribution of environmental factors to global economy
Rubber extraction in the Congo :red_flag:
It's harvest involved a lot of human-suffering. King Leopold ll would cut off their hands and starve them to death, and if they failed on collecting rubber the punishment was death.
King Leopold ll said he wanted to bring civilization to Congo and Rubber was an available resource in Congo.
Rubber extraction supplied the demand the industrial revolution asked for, urbanization, and growth of the consumer class.
Contribution of economic factors to global economy
Opium wars :red_flag:
Opium- hallucination drug that relieves stress and pain.
1st opium war(1839-182) in which the British restricted trade from China. 2nd opium war(1856-1860) in which the French joined the British to fight against China.
Tea was traded in return for opium. The Chinese imperial government banned opium but the Chinese found ways to trade(smugglers.)
Port of Buenos Aires :red_flag:
Britain was a major trading partner with Latin America, Britain helped Argentina become wealthy.
The British financed and built Argentina's port which was necessary for exporting goods/services.
Example of economic imperialism because Britain is using its power/ influence on Argentina.
Contribution of environmental factors to migration
Industrialization creating job opportunities :red_flag:
Industrialization created a high demand for factory labor which made people move to cities.
Jobs in factories and coal mines to keep technology like the steam engine going.
Businesses needed workers and since people were in need/willing to work they often payed them low wages and worked in bad conditions.
Italian industrial workers in Argentina :red_flag:
Italians migrated to Argentina in the mid-1800s because there was more space for them there.
More opportunities since many Italians were in poverty over there in their own country.
Malnutrition and diseases in their own country was also a factor to immigrating to Argentina.
Lebanese merchants in the Americas :red_flag:
2 waves of Lebanese migration. The 1st one around 1920s 100,000 migrated and on the 2nd one around late 1940's over 60,000 migrated.
Many settled in different parts of America.
Different reasons why they left their country like violence, not enough job opportunities, etc.
Contribution of economic factor to migration
Coerced labor migration :red_flag:
Coerced labor is like slavery, they are forced to work because they are intimidated.
Took place from around 1750s to 1900s and the slaves were mostly from Africa, China , Convicts, India, etc.
By being forced, threatened, or convinced workers accepted working for them.
Indentured servitude :red_flag:
A laborer who's in a forced or signed contract in exchange they received food, clothing, and shelter.
Settlers had a lot of land but no one to take care of it so it became a system of free labor.
When their contract was over they were free to leave if they wanted to.
Convict labor :red_flag:
Prisoners were forced to work in labor.
The person who owned the lease of the property was responsible for feeding, clothing, and housing the prisoners.
Prisoners were responsible for doing labor as form of a punishment.
Irish movement to the US :red_flag:
They went to America because of the potato famine, diseases, and poverty.
Irish men worked in dangerous jobs like in coal mines, building railroads, canals, etc. Irish women worked as servants, domestic workers, etc.
They were moved to America because they were promised religious freedom, economic opportunities, and land ownership.
How migration affected society
Ethnic enclaves :red_flag:
An area with a high concentration economic, ethnic, and cultural activity.
Immigrants who lack cultural and social skills are able to obtain lower costs of migration.
Chinese exclusion act :red_flag:
Law that didn't allow any Chinese laborers from immigration to the US.
Was passed in 1882 which was also known as the first immigration that targeted an ethnic group, those who left weren't able to come back to their country.
Chinese immigrants wanted to leave China because of economic problems.
White Australia policy :red_flag:
Not allowing anyone who isn't European especially Chinese to immigrate to Australia.
It decreased the people immigrating to Australia.
Started in 1901 and ended in 1973.