CHAPTER 7: Learning through Pushed Output - Coggle Diagram
CHAPTER 7: Learning through Pushed Output
When planning for a variety of speaking tasks to push learners' output there are several facors to consider.
TOPIC: Topics is most likely to have an effect on the vocabulary that is used as each topic is likely to have its particular technical, topic-related vocabulary.
TEXT TYPE: Involved interaction versus monologue, colloquial speech versus formal speech, short turns versus long turns, interacional versus interactional speech, narrative versus non-narrative.
PLANNING: Planning helps language production because it allows part of the work to be done before the tasks so that there are less things to attend to while the task is being performed.
The tasks can involve describing something in a picture or in the classroom, saying something about another person on the group, mentioning an item from the current news, or expressing an opinion on something.
Typically involve tasks where conveying information is not as important as maintaining friendly relationships. Brown (1978) calls this interactional speaking as opposed to transactional speaking.
It represents a new use of English for most learners and thus requires them to focus on language items that are not as well represented in other uses of the langauge (Biber, 1989). Formal speaking requires control of content, awareness of a largely passive audience, and being the focus of attention (a rather unsetting experience).
Learners hould experience the task from the listeners' point of view, this enables them to notice things that they should avoid in their own spoken presentation, and helps develop a sense of having an audience.
The Nature of Formal Speaking
It is transactional
It often needs teaching as it is a skill that is not a part of typical language use.
The speaking is done in the learner's careful style in a clear and deliberate way.
It involves taking a long turn, it is influenced by written language
Teaching Formal Speaking
Formal speaking opportunities in the classroom should therefore be done with an obvious audience who are interested in the speaker's message. If the other learners know the subject of the talk they can prepare questions before the talk begins.
A Process Approach to Formal Speaking
This means dividing the task into parts such as taking account of the goals and the audience, gathering ideas, organising ideas, making a set of speaking notes, and presenting and monitoring the talk.
Guidelines for Presenting a Formal Talk
The speaker talks to the audience, the audience question the speaker, the audience talk to each others in pairs, one of the audience talks to the rest of the audience, the audience study a handout, see a short film or watch a demonstration.
The message should be limited to three or four important pieces of information.
The speaker should present or gradually build up a simple outline of the main points of the talk.
There should be three or four changes of the focus of attention during the talk.
Monitoring Formal Talks
When listening to formal talks both teachers and learners can look analytically to see where the strengths and weakness of the speaker lie.
GOALS AND AUDIENCE: Is the speaker showing awareness of the audience through the use of appropriate language, pace of presentation, and shred experienced.
IDEAS: Has the speaker enough relevant things to talk about?
ORGANISATION: Is the organisation of the talk clear to the listeners?
NOTES: Is the speaker talking to the audience?