SanchezCindyDigestUrinary.pdf - Coggle Diagram
MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM:
Its the elimination of waste products such as nitrogenous wastes, toxins, and drugs.
Regulates aspects pf homeostasis such as volume and chemical makeup of the blood, and water and electrolyte balance.
Renin: regulates blood pressure and kidney function. Erythropoietin: Red blood cell production.
MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM:
Digestion is the breakdown and absorption of food for metabolism.
It is the energy, growth, and repair of tissues.
MAJOR ORGANS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Small Intestine: Contains villi and microvilli for absorption. It absorbs water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals
Large Intestine: Absorbs water, Vitamin K and Vitamin B complex.
Ingestion: eating, taking in food into the mouth.
Digestion: Physical (teeth) and Chemical (enzymes).
Motility/Propulsion: mixing and movement of food by muscles.
Secretion: release of mucus, acid, bile, and enzymes to aid digestion.
Absorption: Taking in of nutrients into the body to be passed to the blood or lymph.
Elimination/ Defication: removal of waste and undigested food from the body.
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract): Long irregularly shaped tube organ at both ends approximately 9m . Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
MAJOR ORGANS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM
Kidneys: Filters about 200 liters of fluid daily.
Ureters: Transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
Urinary bladder: Temporary storage for urine.
Urethra: Transports urine from the bladder to the external environment.
Pepsin: breaks down proteins into smaller amino acids. produced in the chief cells of the stomach lining and is one of the main digestive enzymes in the digestive systems of humans and many other animals, where it helps digest the proteins in food.
Protease: digest dietary proteins to allow absorption of amino acids.
Amylase: made in the pancreas and delivered to the small intestine. Breaks down starch molecules to sugars, which are ultimately digested into glucose by other enzymes.
Maltase: catalyzes the hydrolysis of the disaccharide maltose to the simple sugar glucose.
Lactase: found in the small intestine of mammals that catalyzes the breakdown of lactose into the simple sugars glucose and galactose.
Sucrase: catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose to its subunits fructose and glucose.
Nuclease: Breaks the bonds between nucleotides in nucleic acids.
Lipase: Breaks down fats in food so they can be absorbed in the intestines. It is produced in the pancreas, mouth, and stomach.
LOCATION OF DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF EACH MACROMOLECULE
All ingested foods, 80 percent of of electrolytes, and 90 percent of water are all absorbed in the small intestine.
Absorption of carbohydrates and proteins are in the jejunum.
Chemical digestion occurs in the mouth and stomach but most of it takes place in the first part of the small intestine.
LAYERS OF GI TRACT:
Mucosa: mucous membrane produces mucus for the reduction of friction and protections.
Submucosa: Areolar connective tissue that contains major blood vessel. Has many elastic fibers to retain its shape. Submucosal plexus.
Muscularis Layer: Muscle layer. Has two layers of smooth muscles to allow peristalsis and segmentation.
Serosa: Outer covering of the GI Tract. Serous membrane. Its is composed of thin layer of areolar connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium. Produces serous fluid for lubrication. It covers the outside of abdominal organs. It attaches the digestive tract to the wall of the abdominopelvic cavity by forming folds called mesenteries.
Stomach: secretes acid and enzymes that digest food.The pyloric sphincter is a muscular valve that opens to allow food to pass from the stomach to the small intestine.
NEPHRON ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY:
Each nephron consists of a blood supply and a specialized network of ducts called a tubule. For each nephron, an afferent arteriole feeds a high-pressure capillary bed called the glomerulus. Blood is filtered by the glomerulus to produce a fluid which is caught by the nephron tubule, called filtrate.
Jaundice: yellow skin discoloration due to excessive amounts of bile in the blood.
Gall Stone: blocks bile duct. Obstruction of common hepatic duct. Blocks the common bile duct feces that will be white and yellow skin.
Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver. Due to one of six hepatitis viruses.
Cirrhosis: Chronic inflammation of the liver usually resulting from alcoholism or chronic hepatitis. Liver transplants are the only clinically proven effective treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease.