Rocks - Coggle Diagram
The solid mineral material forming part of the surface of the earth and other similar planets, exposed on the surface or underlying the soil is rock.
There are over 700 different types of igneous rocks. Examples of igneous rocks include basalt, granite, pumice, obsidian, tuff, diorite, gabbro and andesite.
The properties of these rocks vary greatly, including their chemical composition, grain structure, texture and color.
Igneous rock forms when magma cools and makes crystals. Magma is a hot liquid made of melted minerals. Or, igneous rock can form above ground, where the magma cools quickly. When it pours out on Earth's surface, magma is called lava.
Examples of metamorphic rocks include anthracite, quartzite, marble, slate, granulite, gneiss and schist.
Metamorphic rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks, but have been changed (metamorphosed) as a result of intense heat and/or pressure within the Earth's crust. They are crystalline and often have a “squashed” texture.
Metamorphic rocks are created by the physical or chemical alteration by heat and pressure of an existing igneous or sedimentary material into a denser form.
Clastic sedimentary rocks such as breccia, conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and shale.
Chemical sedimentary rocks, such as rock salt, iron ore, chert, flint, some dolomites, and some limestones
Sedimentary rocks are formed when sediment is deposited out of air, ice, wind, gravity, or water flows carrying the particles in suspension. This sediment is often formed when weathering and erosion break down a rock into loose material in a source area.
Sedimentary rocks contain rounded grains in layers. The oldest layers are at the bottom and the youngest layers are at the top. Sedimentary rocks may contain fossils of animals and plants trapped in the sediments as the rock was formed.