term 2 year 9 history - Coggle Diagram
term 2 year 9 history
A person’s perspective is their point of view – the position from which they see and understand events going on in the world around them.
Evidence is the information gathered from historical sources. The concept of evidence is an essential part of historical inquiry.
The concept of empathy helps us to understand the impact of past events on particular individuals or groups
The concept of contestability relates to explanations or interpretations of past events that are open to debate.
CONTINUITY & CHANGE
Historians recognise that, over time, some things stay the same, while others change. This concept is referred to as continuity and change
The concept of significance relates to the importance assigned to aspects of the past. This includes people, events, developments, discoveries, movements and historical sites.
CAUSE & EFFECT
Cause and effect aims to identify, examine and analyse the reasons why events have occurred and the resulting consequences or outcomes.
the why & what of history
The Industrial Revolution first began in Britain around 1750. Many historians argue that the Industrial Revolution was only possible because of a series of changes in farming practices that paved the way for the country to increase its population and improve its production and manufacturing methods.
1750 – 1940
causes of industrial revolution
naval & trading power
britain relied on skilled sailors, a strong navy & experienced fleet of merchant ships.
largest merchant trading company was east india
individual freedom & capitalist spirit
greater measure of individual and intellectual freedom in britain
freedom provided a fertile ground for those willing to try new methods and take risks
britain's coal supply
none of the other european powers had such large quantities
had a large amount of coal
vital fuel for steam power
rise of british empire
series of wars fought between european powers in 18th century becoming dominant in period power
inventions in industrial revolution
the flying shuttle
invented by John Kay in 1733, introduced a more efficient way of weaving on handlooms.
weavers could produce cloth much more quickly, increasing the demand for spun yarn.
the spinning jenny
invented by James Hargreaves in 1765, helped increase the supply of yarn.
could spin eight threads at once, whereas the traditional spinning wheel could only spin one thread at a time.
the water frame
invented by Richard Arkwright in 1768
was a spinning frame that improved on James Hargreaves’ invention, as it could be powered by a waterwheel and produce yarns of any type.
the portion of people in britain working in manufacturing in 1801 was estimated a 40%, by 1871 this had risen to 60%.
children were seen as ideal employees because
they were small enough to fit between the new machinery
they were too cheap to employ
their families were grateful for the extra income
education wasn't compulsory, so this wasn't a concern( most of the working class couldn' afford it anyway
they started working at age 4 or 5 and the jobs were simple but physically demanding. the children working were often orphans
decline of child labour
raised the minimum age
shortened the working days
introduced some form of education
the feudal system was strict and one was either poor or noble ↛ from 1750, the middle class emerged
- royals who were often landowners and lived off rental income
- included factor owners, doctors, lawyers with generous incomes who were able to establish their homes on the outskirts of towns and cities
- lived closer to factories in slum areas with poor sanitation, average life expectancy was 29 ears, crime was widespread, birth rates were low but the population grew
Questioning and researching
Sources provide information for historians. They can take many different forms, some examples of sources include human remains, coins, cave paintings, textbooks, journals, online databases, newspapers, letters, cartoons and diaries.
the site is linked to an educational institution such as a university or school. These sites are generally very reliable.
the site is linked to a government institution. These sites are generally very reliable.
this site is linked to a commercial organisation or network provider. generally, there is no one to regulate the information posted on the site. As a result, these sites may be unreliable.
this site is linked to a commercially based operation and is likely to be promoting certain products or services. These domain names can be purchased by anyone, so the content should be carefully checked and verified using another, more reliable source.
Use criteria to analyse the reliability, bias, usefulness and currency of primary sources and/or secondary sources Analyse information and/or data in different formats (e.g. to explain cause and effect relationships, comparisons, categories and subcategories, change over time)
Draw evidence-based conclusions by evaluating information and/or data, taking into account ambiguities and multiple perspectives; to negotiate and resolve contentious issues; to propose individual and collective action in response to contemporary events, challenges, developments, issues, problems and/or phenomena
Compare evidence to substantiate judgements (e.g. use the information and/or data from different places or times; use tables, graphs, models, theories) Generate a range of viable options in response to an issue or event to recommend and justify a course of action, and predict the potential consequences of the proposed action Reflect on why all findings are tentative (e.g. the changing nature of knowledge, changes in circumstances or values)
world war 1
From the 1870s onwards, Europe’s leading nations grouped themselves into two alliances. Over time, these alliances became more formal and legally binding
Germany, Austria–Hungary and Italy
Britain, France and Russia
Militarism is the belief that all nations should build and maintain strong armed forces so that they are prepared to defend themselves against attack or promote their national interests.
nationalism is a sense of pride in, and love of, one’s nation.
grows out of an understanding of common goals and beliefs between the people of a nation
june 28, 1914, when a young Serbian patriot shot and killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Imperialism is a policy by which a country increases its power by gaining control over new territories to create an empire.
nature of warfare
Mobility of tanks was not high and the operation of tanks as weapons of warfare was not mastered until World War II
small planes were used to scout enemy positions and later used in dog fights
chlorine, mustard and tear gas
burned and destroyed people's airways, causing pain and death
guns and artillery
fired shells from a long distance. the shells fired in an arch to hit from above
they were able to shoot up to 600 rounds per minute but they overheated easily and were heavy and difficult to use
end of ww1
Treaty of Versailles
most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
28 June 1919
Germany was required to accept responsibility for causing all the damage of the war that was “imposed upon the Allies by the aggression of Germany” and to pay an unspecified amount of money in reparations.
11 september 1918
An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting. It is not necessarily the end of a war, as it may constitute only a cessation of hostilities while an attempt is made to negotiate a lasting peace.
Germany signed an armistice agreement with the Allies on September 11, 1918. World War I was known as the “war to end all wars” because of the great slaughter and destruction it caused.
when Britain declared war on Germany on the 4th august 1914, Australia and new zealand immediatly got involved
the Australian and new Zealand army corps or anzacs were formed in 1915
The Gallipoli landing
The Gallipoli campaign was launched because Britain and France needed to move troops, equipment and weapons to allied troops in Russia.
The hope was that the Allies would surprise the Turks, defeat them quickly and then march on to take control of the Turkish capital, Constantinople. This would open up the desired supply lines through to Russia, and help the Allies to fight Germany and Austria from the east.
More than 600 Australian soldiers were killed on the first day of the campaign.