Unit 5 Revolutions Review(1750-1900 CE) :!!: - Coggle Diagram
Unit 5 Revolutions Review(1750-1900 CE)
Intellectual and ideological context
The Enlightenment :red_flag:
Took place during the late 17th-8th century which was also known as "The Age of Reason" it was based on the belief of reason and science.
Main figures: Hobbs who believed that people were evil and selfish, Locke-government's job is to protect the rights of the people, Montesquieu-separation of power between the 3 gov branches, Rousseau-social contract between the people and the gov, Voltaire-separation between church and state.
European intellectual movement with concerning ideas like reason, God, nature, humanity, and individualism.
How the Enlightenment affected societies
Abolition of slavery :red_flag:
One ideal of the Enlightenment was liberty which was a natural human right.
Abolition- Free slaves/ end slavery.
Slavery contradicted the ideals and the point of the Enlightenment.
Women's suffrage :red_flag:
Men had more privileges than women; not treated equally.
Seneca falls convention(1748) with 5 women(Stanton, Mott, M'Clintock, Wright, and Hunt) which fought for women's rights. Later on they also passed the Declaration of Sentiments which demands women's rights and helps them have a voice.
Wollstonecraft passed a right for women to be able to obtain education and not depend on men since everything they earned they had to give it to their husbands.
Causes/Effects of Revolutions
American Revolution(1765-1783) :red_flag:
What led to it was the British wanting to take over the colonies.
The ideals of the Enlightenment(Life, liberty, justice, freedom of speech, religious tolerance,etc.) which America used , inspired other revolutions to fight against the nobility,colonial rule, and the high class.
American patriots with the help of France won their independence against Great Britain and established U.S.A.
French Revolution(1789-1799) :red_flag:
Louis XVI was the king of France at that time, because of him France went into debt (bankruptcy) which made the people of France revolt against the king.
France had a system named "Ancien Regime" that was also the cause of debt since only the lower class payed taxes. The system consisted of 3 estates(1st-Catholic clergys, 2nd-nobles, 3rd-merchants, peasants, and craftsmen.
Lack of food and political system, ended monarchy, and Napoleon Bonaparte (wanted to defend democratic values) took power during 1799.
Haitian Revolution(1791-1804) :red_flag:
Most successful slave revolt. Haiti was a french colony.
Began sugar plantation which meant it required slaves, those who worked in sugar plantations were treated very badly.
Toussaint was the slave revolt leader which Napoleon wanted to capture in order to reestablish slavery. 1804 Saint-Domingue was declared independent and named it Haiti. Haiti stood up for slaves, the weak, 1st black nation, and 2nd independent nation state in America.
Latin American revolutions(1808-1826) :red_flag:
Environmental factors that contributed to industrialization
Industrial Revolution :red_flag:
Began during the 18th century, what led to it was a new form of technology, trade routes, new crops, etc.
Helped improve living conditions which was shown by people living longer, more food production, increase in population, and medical care.
Britain was the leader of industrialization because of its great transportation since it had abundant rivers, protection towards private property, and strong fleet ships.
Modes and locations of production
Steam engine :red_flag:
Engine that requires steam in order to produce energy. Was created by James watt in 1765.
Fossil fuel (coal) was successful by helping power vehicles faster, made it easier to cook, travel, pump water, etc.
Steam and internal combustion engine helped power railroads, ships, and factories.
1st and 2nd industrial revolution :red_flag:
1st industrial revolution took place from 1760-1830 and focused on adapting from hand to machinery.
2nd industrial revolution took place from 1870-191 and focused on steel production and its main power source; electricity.
During the 1st hand power was still needed to operate and during the 2nd a button just needed to be pushed to operate. Technology has been improving over time and till this day it hasn't stopped.
How technology shaped economic production
Technology helped operate more production. (Food production)
Allows more efficient production like better goods and services.
Improved living conditions and more strong/healthy international trade.
Causes/Effects of economic strategies
In the Ottoman Empire (also seen in other places) industrialization affected women because they had to constantly compete against men in order to work.
Once the Ottoman Empire collided with Europe it wasn't a successful civilization anymore, they began to depend on Europe and they couldn't modernize.
Women began to hold onto their money and were able to obtain an education.
Once Great Britain industrialized so did other countries.
It spread to the U.S because technology(machines) was a major source that allowed cotton to be spun which later on reproduced in the U.S.
Technology allowed Europe to import textiles from other countries.
Japan=1st country in Asia to industrialize. Railroads and roads allowed traveling to happen.
Russia= 4th largest producer of steel. It also established steel, Coal, and textile factories.
Development of economic systems, ideologies, and institutions
Capitalism-(Human need, products/services provided by the individual) both an economic and cultural system in which private investors are needed to make a profit.
Socialism-(Human breed, government owns and provides need for production) human choice and human planning.
Marx(German philosopher) believed capitalism divided the wealthy from the poor(he fought to empower the workers.) Smith(Scottish philosopher) believed a good economy consists of individual producers who produce and charge consumers however they see fit and consumers will buy if they see it'll benefit them(equilibrium.)
Classical Liberalism :red_flag:
John Stuart mill was an English philosopher from the 19th century. He was a liberalist which means he spoke out against illegal privileges for the nobility and the church.
Liberalism- Society shouldn't tell me what I can or can't do, they should only get involved when i do something that hurts someone else.
Stuart wrote 3 books, "On liberty" person should be free unless it says otherwise, "Utilitarianism" what looks right or wrong based on the result of pleasure, pain, or suffering, and "Subjection of women" fighting for their rights and stating that equal rights bring happiness to society.
Stock Market :red_flag:
Buyers and sellers who want ownership for businesses.
In order for a stock exchange to happen the people need to see each other in person.
The companies that were doing good were given money in exchange for a small piece of their profit, when the company keeps doing good the piece goes up.
Causes/Effects of calls for changes
Women were treated very unequally, paid half what men earned for the same job, faced discrimination, and poor treatment.
Forced to work in terrible conditions, no education, bad health conditions, and sometimes even earned 60 cents for 10 or more worked hours.
Both children and women were asked for to work in factories because the owners could pay them less than men.
How industrialization changes social hierarchies and standards of living
Wages/working hours :red_flag:
Worked 10-18 hours a day, 6 days a week.
They weren't paid much, sometimes children had to work in order for the family to survive.
May 1st,1886 was the first day workers could work 8 hours a day, only 40 hours a week and if they worked more they had to pay them overtime.
Social classes :red_flag:
At the bottom were the working class who competed for jobs and obtained low wages.
Factories were said to be for the upper class and offices for the lower class.
The industrial revolution changed from working at home to working in factories. During the 1830s and 1840s everything changed, better living/working conditions, medical care, and education no matter if you were part of the working class.