Digestive/Urinary system- Luz Ramirez- per.5 - Coggle Diagram
Digestive/Urinary system- Luz Ramirez- per.5
Major functions of the
digestive and urinary systems
The urinary function is to remove liquid waste from the blood in the form of urine; keep a stable balance of salts and other substances in the blood; and produce erythropoietin, a hormone that aids the formation of red blood cells. The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra
Digestion is the breakdown of food into small molecules, which are then absorbed into the body. The four most important parts of digestive system is the mouth, stomach, small intestine, and the large intestine.
major organs of the digestive and urinary systems
The Mouth: Ingestion (taking in of food) starts with the mouth. Teeth cut and grind food into smaller particles. Tongue and teeth MASTICATE (hold and chew) food breaking it down into smaller particles. The tongue is composed of SKELETAL muscle covered by mucous membrane, and helps when swallowing. The TASTE BUDS are located in the mucous membrane, when stimulated by food a nervous signal is sent which causes the salivary and gastric glands to secrete saliva. Saliva helps lubricate and moisten food, but also contains ENZYMES that begin to digest food while it is still in the mouth.
The pharynx: is a mucusulo membranus sack like structure which acts as a passageway for chewed food, and as an airway during respiration.
The esophagus: is a long narrow mucusulo membranus tube, about 10 inches long. It is very flexible and stretches from the pharynx to the stomach. It propels food down to the stomach by a wavelike movement of the esophagus muscles.
Sphincters: are bands of ring like muscle that act as gateways to natural openings or 'orifices' at various locations in the body. The muscles close the opening by contracting, and open it by relaxing. The cardiac sphincter is at the base of the oesophagus near the heart, it relaxes to allow food to enter the stomach.
The Stomach: is a muscular, curved pouch like structure. It churns food and mixes it with various lubricating and digestive secretions. Food enters from the esophagus via the cardiac sphincter and is sent to the small intestine via the PYLORIC Sphincter.
The liver: is the largest gland in the body weighing about 3 lbs. It is a gland in the sense that it secretes BILE. It is also essential in the Metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
The pancreas: is a long narrow, lobed gland that is located behind the stomach. The pancreas secretes substances that aid digestion (PANCREATIC JUICE), and two hormones; insulin and glucagen which play an important role in the ENDOCRINE system. Two ureters transport urine from the kidneys into the urinary bladder.
The urethra is a small tube through which urine flows from the bladder to the exterior of the body.
Liver: responsible for many metabolic activities, helps maintain concentration of blood glucose levels. Removes toxic substance from blood.
Gallbladder: stores excess bile for liver it concentrates and stores bile produced in the liver to release small intestine.
enzymes (including names and functions)
Amylase, produced in the mouth. It helps break down large starch molecules into smaller sugar molecules
Pepsin, produced in the stomach
Trypsin, produced in the pancreas
Pancreatic lipase, produced in the pancreas
Deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease, produced in the pancreas
location of digestion and absorption of each
Chemical Digestion:Large food molecules must be broken down into subunits that are small enough to be absorbed by the lining of the alimentary canal. This is accomplished by enzymes through hydrolysis.
Salivary Enzymes Salivary amylase Salivary glands Polysaccharides Disaccharides and trisaccharides
Gastric enzymes Pepsin* Chief cells Proteins Peptides
Pancreatic enzymes Elastase* Pancreatic acinar cells Proteins Peptides
layers of the GI tract (including stomach);
Mucosa A lining epithelium, including glandular tissue, an underlying layer of loose connective tissue called the lamina propria, which provides vascular support for the epithelium, and often contains mucosal glands.
Submucosa A loose connective tissue layer, with larger blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves, and can contain mucous secreting glands.
Adventia layer Outermost layer of loose connective tissue - covered by the visceral peritoneum. Contains blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves.
Nephron anatomy and physiology
The nephron of the kidney is made up of two major parts; the renal corpuscle and the tubules. These are then both sub-divided into various parts and overall it is this structure which allows the kidney to filter the blood and then alter the composition of this filtrate to ensure that waste products are excreted and useful compounds preserved. The renal corpuscle can be subdivided.
disorders of the digestive and urinary systems.
Celiac disease, sometimes called celiac sprue or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an immune reaction to eating gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder that affects the large intestine. Signs and symptoms include cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, and diarrhea or constipation, or both.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus
Excessive urination volume occurs when you urinate more than normal. Urine volume is considered excessive if it equals more than 2.5 liters per day. A “normal” urine volume depends on your age and gender.
burning sensation, dysuria most commonly is caused by bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Lower urinary tract infection
Uremia is the condition of having high levels of urea in the blood. Urea is one of the primary components of urine.