Digestive and Urinary Systems Diana Ventura Per. 1 - Coggle Diagram
Digestive and Urinary Systems
Major functions of the
digestive and urinary systems
Regulate aspects of homeostasis; Volume and chemical makeup of the blood, Water and electrolyte balance, & Acid-base balance in the blood.
Produce hormones; Renin which regulates blood pressure and kidney function. Erythropoietin: red blood cell production.
Elimination of waste products; Nitrogenous wastes, Toxins, & Drugs.
Mechanical Digestion: Physical breaking of large food pieces into smaller pieces. Does not alter chemical composition.
Chemical Digestion: Breaks food into simpler chemicals that can be absorbed by cells in the body. Works with the help of enzymes (-ase).
Function: Digestion (breakdown) and absorption of food for metabolism (energy and growth and repair of tissues).
enzymes (including names and functions)
Nucleic acid-nucleotides. Nuclease-nucleotides.
Lipids (small intestine)
Fats- fatty acids; Lipase-fatty acids and glycerol.
Carbohydrates(mouth and small intestine)
Polysaccharides-disaccharides & monosaccharides; Amylase: poly-di. Disaccharides-monosaccharides; Maltase-glucose. Lactase-glucose and galactose. Sucrase-glucose and fructose.
Proteins (stomach and small intestine)
Pepsin: protein-peptide. Protease: peptide-amino acids.
Major organs of the digestive and urinary systems
Large Intestine: digestion by bacteria. Absorption of water & salt. Form, store, & eliminate feces.
Small Intestine: functions in mechanical digestion where segmentation and peristalsis occurs. Functions in chemical digestion where intestinal glands secrete intestinal juices. Absorption of water and nutrients (90%) occurs.
Teeth: accessory organ that functions in mechanical breakdown of food. Masticate (chew) food into smaller pieces.
Stomach: mixing and holding chamber. J shaped, muscular organ.
Espohagus: connects pharynx to stomach. Passageway only for food. Digestive function = propulsion. Moves food (bolus) by peristalsis.
Tongue: thick muscular organ covered by mucous membrane with taste buds within papillae.
Pharynx: passageway for food (and air) from mouth to esophagus.
Gallbladder: stores excess bile for liver.
Mouth: opening for food and food enters the mouth (ingestion).
Salivary Glands: accessory organ that keeps oral cavity moist, lubricates, dissolves and begins chemical breakdown of food.
Liver: secretes bile into duodenum.
Pancreas: secretes pancreatic juice into duodenum. Enzymes to digest all 4 nutrients.
Urethra: Transports urine from bladder to the external environment.
Urinary Bladder: Temporary storage reservoir for urine.
Ureters: Transport urine from kidneys to bladder.
Kidneys: Filters about 200 liters of fluid daily
(47 gallons!). Major excretory organs.
Location of digestion and absorption of each
Chemical Digestion Macromolecules
Carbohydrates: located in mouth and the small intestine.
Fats: located in the small intestine.
Proteins: located in stomach and the small intestine.
Absorption of Macromolecules
Carbohydrates: located in the blood of the small intestine.
Fats: located in the lacteals which is the lymphatic vessels of the small intestine.
Proteins: located in the blood of the small intestine.
Layers of the GI tract (including stomach)
Outer covering of the GI Tract.
Serous Membrane: composed of thin layer of aerolar connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium. Produces serous fluid for lubrication.
Muscle layer. Two layers of smooth muscles to allow peristalsis and segmentation.
Myenteric Plexus: nerves.
Aerolar connective tissue containing major blood vessel. Many elastic fibers to retain shape.
Submucosal Plexus: autonomic nerve supply. Glands and lymphatic tissue.
Epithelium: varies by location. Nonkeratinized stratified squamous in mouth, esophagus and anus, protection against friction. Simple columnar in intestine for absorption and secretion.
Lamina Propria: aerolar connective tissue. Contains blood and lymphatic vessels, and lymph node for nourishment and immunity.
Mucous Membrane: produces mucus for reduction of friction and protections.
Muscularis Mucosae: two thin layers of smooth muscles.
Nephron anatomy and physiology
The renal tubule has a cup-shaped end called the glomerular capsule or Bowman’s capsule.
Each nephron consists of a
glomerulus (capillaries) and renal
Responsible for forming urine.
Kidneys contains over 1 million of these tiny blood-processing units.
The structural and functional
units of the kidneys.
Kidneys form urine in the nephrons and adjust the blood composition with three major processes.
Glomerular flitration #1: Dump filtrate into renal tubules & Filters about 200 L daily and only 1.5L leaves the
body as urine.
Tubular reabsorption #2: Kidneys reclaim what the body needs, Almost all the filtrate (99%) which includes Water, salt, glucose and amino acids. Not reabsorbed is uric acid, creatinine, urea & Anything not reabsorbed becomes urine.
Tubular secretion #3: Fine-tuning the body’s chemical balance.
Disorders of the digestive and urinary systems
Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix.
Hepatitis: an imflammation of the liver. Usually due to one of six hepatitis viruses.
Gallstones: blocks bile duct. It is an obstruction of common of hepatic duct.
Cirrhosis: a chronic inflammation of the liver usually resulting from alcoholism or chronic hepatitis.
Jaundice: yellow skin discoloration due to excessive amounts of bile in blood.
Kidney Stones: are hard deposits of minerals and acid salts that stick together in concentrated urine.
Glucose (glycosuria): causes diabetes mellitus.
Proteins (proteinuria): causes non-pathological: excessive physical exertion, pregnancy, high-protein diet; pathological: heart failure, severe hypertension, renal disease.
Hemoglobin (hemoglobinuria): causes transfusion reaction, hemolytic anemia, severe burns, etc.
Bile pigments (bilirubinuria): causes liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis).
Erythrocytes (hematuria): causes bleeding (due to trauma, kidney stones, or infection).
Leukocytes (pyuria): causes urinary tract infection.