Unit 11: Reproductive System Jocelyn Guerrero period 4 - Coggle Diagram
Unit 11: Reproductive System Jocelyn Guerrero period 4
Anatomy of male and female reproductive structures & their functions
The organs of the male reproductive system are specialized for
To produce, maintain and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and protective fluid (semen)
To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract
To produce and secrete male sex hormones
Penis — The penis is the male organ for sexual intercourse. It has three parts: the root, which attaches to the wall of the abdomen; the body, or shaft; and the glans, which is the cone-shaped end of the penis.
The glans, which also is called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin.
The body of the penis is cylindrical in shape and consists of three internal chambers. These chambers are made up of special, sponge-like erectile tissue. This tissue contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when the man is sexually aroused.
Semen, which contains sperm, is expelled (ejaculated) through the end of the penis when the man reaches sexual climax (orgasm).
The scrotum is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind the penis.
It contains the testicles (AKA testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels
has a protective function and acts as a climate control system for the testes
For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than the body temperature.
Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract (tighten) and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth and protection or farther away from the body to cool the temperature
The testes are oval organs about the size of very large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord.
responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for producing sperm
Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubules are responsible for producing the sperm cells through a process called spermatogenesis
The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle.
It functions in the carrying and storage of the sperm cells that are produced in the testes.
Another job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity, since the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization.
Male reproductive organs
Vas deferens — The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation.
Ejaculatory ducts — These are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.
Urethra — The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of the body. In males, it has the additional function of expelling semen when the man reaches orgasm.
Seminal vesicles — The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich fluid that provides sperm with a source of energy and helps with the sperms’ motility
Prostate gland — The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm.
Bulbourethral glands — The bulbourethral glands, or Cowper’s glands, are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.
The ovaries are a pair of small glands about the size and shape of almonds, located on the left and right sides of the pelvic body cavity lateral to the superior portion of the uterus.
Ovaries produce female sex hormones such as estrogen and progesterone as well as ova, the female gametes. Ova are produced from oocyte cells that slowly develop throughout a woman’s early life and reach maturity after puberty.
The fallopian tubes are a pair of muscular tubes that extend from the left and right superior corners of the uterus to the edge of the ovaries
The fallopian tubes end in a funnel-shaped structure called the infundibulum, which is covered with small finger-like projections called fimbriae. The fimbriae swipe over the outside of the ovaries to pick up released ova and carry them into the infundibulum for transport to the uterus.
The uterus is a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ located posterior and superior to the urinary bladder. Connected to the two fallopian tubes on its superior end and to the vagina
The inner lining of the uterus, known as the endometrium, provides support to the embryo during early development.
The vagina is an elastic, muscular tube that connects the cervix of the uterus to the exterior of the body.
is located inferior to the uterus and posterior to the urinary bladder.
The vulva is the collective name for the external female genitalia located in the pubic region of the body. The vulva surrounds the external ends of the urethral opening and the vagina and includes the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, and clitoris.
The breasts are specialized organs of the female body that contain mammary glands, milk ducts, and adipose tissue. The two breasts are located on the left and right sides of the thoracic region of the body. In the center of each breast is a highly pigmented nipple that releases milk when stimulated. The areola, a thickened, highly pigmented band of skin that surrounds the nipple, protects the underlying tissues during breastfeeding.
The mammary glands are a special type of sudoriferous glands that have been modified to produce milk to feed infants.
Events of the female hormonal cycles (3)
The female reproductive cycle is the process of producing an ovum and readying the uterus to receive a fertilized ovum to begin pregnancy. If an ovum is produced but not fertilized and implanted in the uterine wall, the reproductive cycle resets itself through menstruation.
Oogenesis and Ovulation:
Under the influence of follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone , the ovaries produce a mature ovum in a process known as ovulation. By about 14 days into the reproductive cycle, an oocyte reaches maturity and is released as an ovum. Although the ovaries begin to mature many oocytes each month, usually only one ovum per cycle is released.
Once the mature ovum is released from the ovary, the fimbriae catch the egg and direct it down the fallopian tube to the uterus. It takes about a week for the ovum to travel to the uterus. If sperm are able to reach and penetrate the ovum, the ovum becomes a fertilized zygote containing a full complement of DNA. After a two-week period of rapid cell division known as the germinal period of development, the zygote forms an embryo. The embryo will then implant itself into the uterine wall and develop there during pregnancy.
While the ovum matures and travels through the fallopian tube, the endometrium grows and develops in preparation for the embryo. If the ovum is not fertilized in time or if it fails to implant into the endometrium, the arteries of the uterus constrict to cut off blood flow to the endometrium. The lack of blood flow causes cell death in the endometrium and the eventual shedding of tissue in a process known as menstruation.
hormones of the reproductive system
Luteinizing hormone is a hormone produced by gonadotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland. In females, an acute rise of LH triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum.
Follicle-stimulating hormone is a gonadotropin, a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone. FSH is synthesized and secreted by the gonadotropic cells of the anterior pituitary gland, and regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body
Progesterone is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species. It belongs to a group of steroid hormones called the progestogens
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. In male humans, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as testes and prostate, as well as promoting secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle and bone mass, and the growth of body hair.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the anterior pituitary. GnRH is a tropic peptide hormone synthesized and released from GnRH neurons within the hypothalamus
Major functions of the
is to ensure survival of the species
work continuously to maintain homeostasis for survival of the individual
produce egg and sperm cells
transport and sustain these cells
nurture the developing offspring
functions are divided between the primary and secondary, or accessory, reproductive organs.
Primary reproductive organs, or gonads, consist of the ovaries and testes. These organs are responsible for producing the egg and sperm cells gametes and hormones.
hormones function in the maturation of the reproductive system, the development of sexual characteristics, and regulation of the normal physiology of the reproductive system.
other organs, ducts, and glands in the reproductive system are considered secondary, or accessory, reproductive organs. These structures transport and sustain the gametes and nurture the developing offspring.
disorders of the
Endometriosis is a problem affecting a woman’s uterus, the place where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. Endometriosis is when the kind of tissue that normally lines the uterus grows somewhere else. It can grow on the ovaries, behind the uterus, on the bowels, or on the bladder.
Uterine fibroids are the most common noncancerous tumors in women of childbearing age. Fibroids are made of muscle cells and other tissues that grow in and around the wall of the uterus, or womb.
Gynecologic cancer is any cancer that starts in a woman’s reproductive organs. Gynecologic cancers begin in different places within a woman’s pelvis, which is the area below the stomach and in between the hip bones.
HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus. HIV affects specific cells of the immune system. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infection anymore. The human body cannot get rid of HIV—that means once a person has HIV, he or she has it for life.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder condition resulting in recurring discomfort or pain in the bladder or surrounding pelvic region. People with IC usually have inflamed or irritated bladder walls that can cause scarring and stiffening of the bladder.
Polycystic ovary syndrome happens when a woman’s ovaries or adrenal glands produce more male hormones than normal. One result is that cysts develop on the ovaries. Women who are obese are more likely to have PCOS. Women with PCOS are at increased risk of developing diabetes and heart disease.
STDs are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites, and viruses.