Ecology - Coggle Diagram
stimuli that elicits behavior
fixed action patterns
A sequence of unlearned acts
directly linked to a simple stimulus
caused by stimulus in the environment, such as weather change
animals use position of the sun to navigate long distance travels they may not have made before
use of the circadian clock, an internal mechanism, keeps a consistent 24 hour rhythm that helps animals position themselves to the sun as it changes position day to day.
nocturnal animals use the north star for guidance
the earths magnetic field also effects how animals navigate home; some birds have specialized magnetism that allows them to use the fields to get home.
animal signs and communication
movements of animals or displays that can be shown as a warning, a threat, or courtship
signs can be wing movements in birds and winged insects. signs such as territory declaration or intent to mate; bees have a system of "dances" that describe if there are good areas to harvest pollen from
chemicals that have distinct tastes and smells that alert those that sense them that an area of territory has been claimed, or that an individual is ready to mate
experience influenced behavior
imprinting, offspring recognizing its parents
learning, behaviors that produce an outcome; monkeys using tools to open hard shells nuts
spacial learning, memory of environment and habitat; digger wasps use "landmarks" to find their nest.
cognitive maps, the use of things present in the environment used by some animals to remember their territory better
associative learning, experiences with something that lead to behaviors with different things; blue jays do not attack bugs colored similarly to monarch butterflies due to their bitter taste
cognition, the ability to use judgment and reason; killer whales using fish to lure in birds as a trap.
problem solving comes from having a level of cognition; monkeys building a small tower to get to a banana hung from the ceiling
developed behaviors, behaviors that is learned more with age and repetition.
social learning, behaviors learned by observing others in a community
sexual selection, females choosing males with desired ornamental traits, such as colorful feathers or enlarged eye stalks, are due to the idea that possessing such traits is a healthy and strong characteristic.
male competition for mates, males fighting for supremacy in a group. the winner gains access to the females, best water sources and best food sources. Ensuring that the group has the strongest offspring and the best chance at survival.
genetic behavior and fitness
genetic information that determines a behavior; fruitflies posses a gene that determines their courtship, it is a regulatory gene
the genetic makeup can be influenced by natural selection; coastal snakes prefer different food sources over inland snakes
altruism, selflessness, decreasing your own standing for the sake of a group; ground squirrels calling out to alert of an incoming predator
parents of offspring sacrificing their time to raise their young
reciprocal altruism, acts of selflessness between strangers that mutually benefits both parties
Hamilton's rule:a way to measure, or quantify, the effect of altruism on fitness
rB>C; B, is the average number of extra offspring that the recipient of an altruistic act produces; The cost, C, is how many
fewer offspring the altruist produces; The coefficient of
relatedness, r, equals the fraction of genes that, on average, are shared
sociology, the study of human behavior from a biological standing
human behavior has parallels to animistic behavior; by studying animals and humans to determine behaviors, a map can be made of the complex behaviors we exhibit by looking at simpler versions of it in animals
exponential growth model
rN = dt
dN/dt represents the rate at which the
population is increasing in size
"r", the intrinsic rate of increase
N is the current population size
exponential growth creates a J curve on a graph
exponential growth is growth whose rate becomes ever more rapid in proportion to the growing total number or size
populations typically see exponential growth if they experience a catastrophe and are rebounding in their environment
logistic model of growth
a population slows in growth once it nears the carrying capacity for growth
(dN / dt) = rN ( ( K- N ) / K )
it is the exponential model with the added expression: carrying capacity is K, n K - N is the number of additional individuals the environment can support, and (K - N)/K is the fraction of K that is still available for population growth
creates a J curve and then levels out on a graph.
When a population nears the most life a habitat can support, birth rates will go down and the population numbers will stay within a range that doesn't exceed what can be supported
A birth rate or death rate that does not change with population density is said to be density independent
a death rate that increases with population density or a birth rate that falls with rising density is said to be density dependent
competition for resources among species
disease in populations
predation of a population
human population growth
no longer growing exponentially, just rapidly
carying capacity of earth, hard to determine, first thought to be 13 billion, now thought any where from 1 billion to 1000 billion
our footprint limits how much our population can grow. if we limit our food source, pollute our water, and ruin the land, our population can no longer sustain itself and then lose its growth
variation in earths climate
seasons, four periods of time that fall between when the earths position to the sun is has changed in distance
Coriolis effect,an effect whereby a mass moving in a rotating system experiences a force (the Coriolis force ) acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation. On the earth, the effect tends to deflect moving objects to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern and is important in the formation of cyclonic weather systems.
ocean currents influence climate in coastal regions. it can also influence rain forest growth in how much moisture is in the air,brought in by currents
mountains produce a rain shadow effect, clouds move towards the mountain, releasing rain and snow due to the cooled air, and leaving the other side of the mountain dry and a form of desert
micro climates, best observed in forests, the ground will be wet and even marshy when compared to the canopy, which will be drier and hotter than below, showing two different climates
climate change on a global scale, by the burning of fossil fuels, and mass production and farming, adding heat to the planet has increased the temperature by 0.9 C since 1900
terrestrial biomes as affected by climate change
climographs, show the distribution of biomes based on the average mean temperature and perception different regions.
disturbances, "natural disasters" such as storms, fires, and earth quakes are disturbances
tropical forest, temp: averaging 25–29°C, near the equator, rain fall typically about 150–200 cm annually, home to the largest amount of life on land, full of large trees and 5-30 million species of insects, arthropods, and spiders
desert, near the 30 degree lat band, temp: hot deserts may exceed 50°C; in cold deserts air temperature may fall below 30°C, rain fall rarely exceeds 30 cm. plant life is scarce due to the lack of rain, and animal life is typically ectothermic and smaller in size
savanna, near the equatorial and sub equatorial areas, temp: 24–29°C, rain fall is 30–50 cm, plants are typically thorny with small leaves to retain water, many large plant eating animals live in the savanna, with larger preditor
chaparral, midlatitude coastal region, temp: 10–12°C, summer temp can range from 30-40°C, rain fall is 30–50 cm, plant life is shrub and bush dominated, animals are deer and goats/grazers as well as small ground dwelling animals
grassland, found primarily above the 30° line, temp: –10°C winters and 30°C summers, rain fall is 30-100 cm, no tall standing plants, mainly grass/tall grasses, animals are migratory grazers like bison and horses
coniferous forest, found in the north, temp: -50-20°C, rain fall 30 to 70, once recorded at 300 cm, plants are large trees growing for hundreds of years, large grazers also live here such as moose and bear
broadleaf forests, found near grasslands, temp: 0-35°C, rain fall is 70 to 200 cm, plant life are primarily mid range to large trees, lots of smaller creatures live here as well as bears, elk, lynx, and beavers
tundra, found in the arctic, temp: -30-10°C, rain fall is 20-60 cm, plants are mosses and grasses primarily, animals are large grazers, such as ox, caribou, bears, wolves, and fox
photic zone is the region where there is sufficient light
aphotic zone is the
region where little light penetrates
The photic and aphotic zones together make up the pelagic zone
abyssal zone, the part of the ocean
2,000–6,000 m below the surface
Benthic zone, made up of sand and organic and inorganic sediments, occupied by communities of organisms.
a narrow layer of abrupt temperature change called a thermocline separates the more uniformly warm upper layer from more uniformly cold deeper waters