CHAPTER 8/POPULATION DYNAMICS - Coggle Diagram
CHAPTER 8/POPULATION DYNAMICS
1750, there were still fewer than 1 billion people on Earth, and some estimates put
the fgure closer to 600 million
during some periods, certain regions of
the world, such as Europe and especially North America, were experiencing rapid
growth while in other places—for example, Africa—little or no population growth
demographic transitions, the occurrence of prolonged and relatively permanent changes in population growth rates.
The fundamental equation of demography (see Chapter 2) indicates that a population grows or decreases in size as the result of the combined infuence of births,
deaths, in-migration, and out-migration.
This way of looking at growth is referred
to as the components method
we will refer to all change in the size of a
we speak of negative or zero population growth (ZPG).
population or other aggregate as “growth,” even when an absolute loss or no change
The linear model, based on what Malthus referred to as “arithmetic
growth,” assumes that an equal percentage of persons is added to (or subtracted
from) a population each and every year in the interval. T
This is doubling time, an indicator of growth that is expressed in
years rather than in rates or percentages
According to Thomlinson, there may have been as many as 10 million people in the
world as of 12,000 years ago
were a mere 25,000 members of Homo erectus in 1 million BCE.
Mortality control consists of practices that reduce death rates, in particular,
These include improved standards of nutrition and sanitation, medical practices, and accident prevention
The Scientifc and Industrial Revolutions mark the beginning of a new era in
human history. F
The world’s population reached 1 billion during the frst decade of the nineteenth century
f pronatalism—the view that having many children is the most
virtuous practice, it became apparent that this was an outmoded value, one better
suited to a time when infant mortality levels were high and large families were a
The decline has occurred in all of Europe, in
North America, Oceania, Japan, and in a few other countries in Latin America and