Wastewater Treatment, industrial-wastewater , download , sewage-from…
Management of wastewater
Laws, policies and advocacy should be designed to encourage all stakeholders to reduce the generation of wastewater. This will reduce the volume of wastewater that we have to eventually deal with.
Capture the wastewater immediately:
Involve laying different underground pipes to carry different types of wastewater.
Taking the wastewater away
Prelimenary treatment: Removal of sewage constituents (Screening out rubbish and grit removal).
Primary treatment: Wastewater is poured into the tanks.
Secondary treatment: Activated sludge process.
Tertiary treatment: Removal of substances and chlorination process.
Sludge treatment: Concentration and thickening to enable further process.
Back to the river.
Recycle and re-use water:
An example is water that is used over and over again for cooling purposes in an energy plant.
Education, Awareness, Advocacy and Stewardship:
Each person and all groups of people should be adequately informed about the threat and the need to reduce wastewater and welcome the potential in managing them with socially and culturally appropriate methods and technology.
Impacts of Wastewater
Fresh water bodies and marine waters into which wastewater is discharged may be polluted.
Unsafe for human uses and harmful to the aquatic life.
Health of urban and rural populations
Contamination of surface water with pathogenic organisms in wastewater could result in the transmission of waterbone diseases for people who use the water for domestic and other purposes.
Diarrhea and cholera habe been reported in South Africa caused by the wastewater.
Agriculture / Fisheries / Tourism
Wastewater for irrigation may contain unsuitable chemicals and higher concentrations of nutrients needed for crops, causing the delayed and under yielding.
Animals may die, and there is a chance that humans that eat such animals may be harmed too.
The smell of faecal sewage discharged and such behavior does not encourage tourism to that area.
The effect of wastewater is the eutrophication of fresh water bodies and oceans. If one part of the ecosystem chain is destroyed, it can upset its entire food chain.
Wastewater treatment a process used to convert wastewater into an effluent that can be either returned to the water cyce with minimal environment issues or reused.
Wastewater is a spent or used water with dissolved or suspended solids, discharge from homes, commercial establishment farms and industries.
To recycle wastewater for reuse in irrigation, thereby preserving water resources, which is scarce in arid and semiarid regions of the world.
Types of wastewater
Generated by home dwellings, public restrooms, hotels, restaurants, motels, resorts, schools, places of worship, sports stadiums, hospitals and other health centers, apartments.
Household activities such as human excreta (feces, urine, blood and other bodily fluids) often mixed with used toilet paper or wet wipes
Organic or biodegradable waste including waste from hospitals, abattoirs, creameries, and food factories.
Organic or non bio-degradable waste that is difficult-to-treat from pharmaceutical or pesticide manufacturing.
Solids and emulsions from paper mills, factories producing lubricants or hydraulic oils and foodstuffs.
Produced water from oil & natural gas production.
Industrial site drainage (silt, sand, alkali, oil, chemical residues).
Water from floods (stormwater).
Runoff (rainwater running through cracks in the ground into gutters), water from swimmimg pools, water from garages and cleaning centers.
Laundromats, beauty salons, commercial kitchens, energy generation plants and so on.
Bacteria (for example Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Vibrio cholerae)
Viruses (for example hepatitis A, rotavirus, enteroviruses)
Protozoa (for example Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum)
Parasites such as helminths and their eggs (e.g. Ascaris (roundworm), Ancylostoma (hookworm) and Trichuris (whipworm)
Chemical / Physical Pollutants
Heavy metals, including mercury, lead, and chromium
Organic particles such as feces, hairs, food waste, vomit, paper fibers, plant material, humus,
Gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane.
Inorganic particles such as sand, grit, metal particles, rubber residues from tires, ceramics.
Emulsions such as paints, adhesives, mayonnaise, hair colorants, emulsified oils.
Toxins such as pesticides, poisons, herbicides.
Microplastics such as polyethylene and polypropylene beads, polyester and polyamide.