Science Unit Overview Mindmap - Coggle Diagram
Science Unit Overview Mindmap
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and bloodstream
The release of energy (ATP) from organic molecules.
The exchange of air between the atmosphere and the lungs – achieved by the act of breathing
Process of the respiratory system
Air enters through the nose or mouth and passes through pharynx to the trachea
Air travels down the trachea and divides into two bronchi
Inside each lung, the bronchi divide into many smaller airways called bronchioles, greatly increasing surface area
Each bronchiole has air sacs called alveoli, where gas exchange with the bloodstream occurs
External Intercostals (ribs) contract → pulls rib upwards and outwards (expand chest)
Diaphragm will contracts → flatten → increase volume of thoracic cavity
Abdominal muscles: contracts → push diaphragm upwards (force exhalation)
Internal intercostals ( ribs) contract → pulls rib inwards and downwards (reducing breadth of chest)
Digestive system: The digestive system will break down carbohydrates, sugar, starch to glucose. Which turns food into energy needed to survive and get rid of bodily waste.
Organs which food passes through
Where food is mixed with saliva and goes down the throat
Food will be mixed up with digestive juices
small & large intestine
Small intestine: Microvilli
(tiny hairs) in the small intestine help to absorb nutrients from food.
Large intestine: The final section of the alimentary canal, where water and dissolved minerals (i.e. ions) are absorbed
Aid in digestion but food doesn’t pass through
Release saliva to moisten food and contain enzymes to initiate starch breakdown
Release digestive enzymes( insulin)
Acts like a storage, which stores vitamins, iron, glycogen
Stores bile produced by the liver and will released to the small intestine.
Vitamins and minerals are essential nutrients
Homeostasis: A state of equilibrium or balance inside an organism which requires all body systems work together to maintain.
Metabolism involved in catabolism and anabolism.
Catabolic reactions: breakdown food to obtain energy Anabolic reactions: use the energy produced by catabolic reactions to form larger molecules
integrating center ( message got send to the brain)
receptor (detects a change in enviroment)
effector ( cause a reaction)
Negative feedback loop: a process that happens when your systems need to slow down or completely stop a process that is happening.
Positive feedback loop: a process that can continue to amplify your body's response to a stimulus until a negative feedback response takes over.
Carbon dioxide+ water into glucose + water
Limiting Factors of Photosynthesis
CO2: as carbon dioxide concentration increases reaction rate will increase, as more organic molecules are being produced
Photosynthesis involves two stages
Light-dependent reaction which requires light and occurs on the thylakoids of chloroplasts. Photolysis takes place at this stage.
Light-independent reaction that has no light requirement and takes place in the stroma of chloroplasts. It involves carbon fixation to produce carbohydrates.
temperature: as temperature increases reaction rate will increase, as reactants have greater kinetic energy and more collisions result
Light intensity: as light intensity increases reaction rate will increase, as more chlorophyll are being photo-activated
Level of organization
Made up of cells and the cells will work together to perform a specific activity
Made up of tissues that work together to perform a specific activity. heart, brain, skin, etc
Groups of two or more organs that work together to perform a specific function. circulatory system, nervous system, skeletal system, etc.
living thing that can carry out all basic life processes.
anaerobic (needs oxygen) respiration, aerobic (no need oxygen)respiration
Glycolysis - the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvate (oxygen not needed)
Output: 2 ATP + 2 pyruvate