The post-methods era :check: - Coggle Diagram
The post-methods era
The "Top-down" criticism
Approaches to allow for varying interpretations in practice, methods typically prescribe for teachers what and how to teach.
Teacher is regarded that use of the method is correct and its prescribed principles and techniques
The role of the teacher is marginalized
To understand the method and apply its principles correctly
Learners are sometimes viewed as the passive recipients of the method
The teacher must submit herself or himself to the method
A language teaching method is a single set of procedures which teachers are to follow in the classroom. Methods usually based on a set of beliefs about the nature of language and learning
The commonest solution to the language teaching problem was seen to lie in the adoption of a new teaching approach or method
In the USA, a variety of guru-led methods to fill the vacuumcreated by the discrediting of Audiolingialism, the silent way, total physical response, and suggestopedia.
In 1980s is the recommended basis for language teaching methodology as Mainstream language teaching an both the atlantic, opted for (CLT)
CLT is of very general principles that can be applied and interpreted an a variety of ways.
Role of contextual factors
Both approaches and methods are often promoted as all-purpose splutions to teaching problems that can be applied in any part of the world
The teacher sometimes, a careful consideration of the context in which teaching and learning occurs.
Including the cultural context
The political context
The local intitutional contex
The contex constituted by the teachers and learners in their classroom
The need for curriculom development processes
Curriculum planners view debates over teaching method as part of a broader set of educational planning decisions.
a) The careful examination, drawing on all available sources of knowledge and informed judgement of the reaching objetives, whether in particular subject curses or over the curriculum as a whole.
b) The development examination and trial use in schools of those methods and materials which are judged most likely to achive the objetives which teachers agreed upon
c) The assessment of the extent wich the development work has in fact chived its objetives. this part of the process may be expected to provoke new thought about the objectives themselves
d) The final element is therefore the feedback of all the experience gained, to provide a starting ponint for further study
Lack of reseach basis
Approaches and methods are often based on the assumption that the process of second language learning are fully understood
Study language learning are themselves usually reluctant to dispense prescriptions for teaching based on the results of their research
Often simplistic theories and prescriptions found in some approaches and methods
The underlyning theory for a p-p-p approache has now been discredited
Similarity of classroom practices
It is very difficult for teachers to use approaches and methods in ways that precisely reflect the underlying principles od the method
One problem for the teachers is involved in presenting materials created for a method are the underlying philosophies of these methods in their classroom practices
Generally methods are quite distinctive at the early, beginning stages of a language course, and rether indistinguishable from each other at a later stage in the first few days of a comunity language learning class
Beyond approaches and methods
Approaches and methods have played a central role in the development of our profession, it will continue to be useful for teachers and student teachers to become familiar with the major teaching approaches and methods proposed for second and foreign language teaching
To use approaches and methods flexibly and creatively based on ther own judgment and experience
Teaching is largely a matter of applying procedures and techniques develop by others.
This may not lead to abandonment of the approache or method the teacher stared out using but will lead to a modification of it as the teachers adds.
An individual teacher may darw on different principles at different times, depending on the type of class he or she is teaching
All classroom practices reflect teachers' principles and beliefs, and different systems among teacher can often explain why teachers conduct their class in different way
Some of the responses to these issues may take the form of new approaches and methods
May lend to a refining or reshaping of exixting approaches and methos as the teaching profession responds to the findings of new reseach and to developments in educational theory and practice.
Incentives or demands of a political , social, or even fiscal nature may also drive change, as they have in the past.
Some of the factors that have influenced language teaching trends in the past and that can expected to continue to do so in the future
Goverment policy directives
Trends in the profession
Influences from academic diciplines
Grossover educational trends
Grossevers from other disciplines
At around the same time, Kumaravadivelu (1994) identified what he called the 'postmethod condition', a result of 'the widespread dissatisfaction with the conventional concept of method' (p. 43).
These approaches have in common a correct set of theories and beliefs
Interpretations as to how the principles can be applied;
This level of flexibility
The possibility of varying interpretations
Refers to a specific instructional design or system based on a particular theory of language and of language learning
Roles of teachers and learners, generally for individual interpretation
The teacher's role is to follow the method and apply it precesely according to the rules